博碩士論文 946401004 詳細資訊




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姓名 黃士銘(Shih-Ming Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 大氣物理研究所
論文名稱 南海之熱帶氣旋所引起強烈降溫作用與藻類繁生之研究:左右不對稱之機制探討及生地化模組之改進
(Tropical cyclone induced strong cooling and phytoplankton bloom in the South China Sea : A mechanistic investigation of the asymmetric response and improvement of the biogeochemical module)
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摘要(中) 熱帶氣旋從北半球海面經過後,所引起右側降溫作用與藻類繁生現象經常被觀測到,並且已經普遍被歸納為: 氣旋右側較強的風場與風-海流的共振作用,導致此往右側傾斜的趨勢。然而,我們使用高解析度的海洋物理-生地化(ATOP-NPZD)耦合模式,發現單獨的垂直混合過程只會產生弱的不對稱現象。進一步的研究結果顯示,不對稱的藻類繁生現象是由於右側強烈的次中尺度(sub-mesoscale)的垂直環流胞、往右側傾斜之冷水的等溫線與在次表層形成的噴流一起共同作用所造成。當我們使用一個雙重時間尺度的漸進展開分析,發現這些較緩慢發展的特徵都是經由,活躍和快速振盪的近慣性內波所引起之Reynolds切應力的共振所導致。值得一提的是,雖然這過程較慢,但是這些現象都發生在一周之內。
除此之外,我們進一步發展使用新的海洋物理-生地化耦合模式(ATOP-Photo-SiNE),我們發現在較長期的的模擬中,效果較佳,其結果顯示在熱帶氣旋過後的7-10天之內,矽藻會先大量的生長,然後再自表層水體沉降,如此一來能較快速降低表層的營養鹽,抑制海表面浮游植物繼續的繁生,使得熱帶氣旋過後一星期以上海表面的Chl-a濃度不會過度生長而且能較快速的回復正常狀態。證明海洋生物的反應也扮演了重要的海洋生地化回復機制。因此,在模式中擁有矽藻部門之較複雜的Photo-SiNE生地化模式,對於探討熱帶氣旋所引起較長期海洋生地化之反應是必須的。
摘要(英) The rightward tendency (in northern hemisphere) of enhanced phytoplankton bloom often observed in the wake of a tropical cyclone has commonly been attributed to the rightward bias of mixing due to stronger wind and wind-current resonance. We demonstrated using a high-resolution biophysical model (ATOP-NPZD) that vertical mixing alone resulted only in weak asymmetry. The bloom asymmetry was caused instead by intense sub-mesoscale recirculation cells produced on the right side, rightward shift of cool isotherms, and spin-up of a subsurface jet. We showed using a two-time scale asymptotic expansion that these slower evolving features were forced by resonance Reynolds stresses of the energetic and rapidly oscillating near-inertial internal waves.
In addition, we further developed and used a new ocean physical - biogeochemical coupled model (ATOP-Photo-SiNE) which simulated a better result of long time period. During 7~10 days after tropical cyclone passed, the diatom would grow fastly and then sink from surface layer that quickly reduced the DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) concentration of surface layer that inhibited the development of phytoplankton bloom. Therefore, the surface chlorophyll-a concentration didn’t overgrow and fastly return to normal conduction. Our result suggests that the biological responses also plays an important role in marine biogeochemical feedback. The participation of diatom in the more complex Photo-SiNE model is necessary for investigating the long-term biogeochemical response induced by tropical cyclone.
關鍵字(中) ★ 熱帶氣旋
★ 藻類繁生
★ 左右不對稱
★ 生地化模式
關鍵字(英) ★ tropical cyclone
★ phytoplankton bloom
★ asymmetric
★ biogeochemical model
論文目次 摘 要 I
Abstract II
致 謝 IV
目 錄 V
表 目 錄 VIII
圖 目 錄 IX
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1、研究區域之大氣與海洋環境 1
1.1.1、南海地區的氣候環境 1
1.1.2、南海地區海洋環流的特徵 2
1.1.3、南海地區生地化的特性 2
1.1.4、颱風對南海的影響 3
1.2、熱帶氣旋對海洋物理與生地化的作用 4
1.3、研究主題及目的 6
第二章 資料來源與模式介紹 9
2.1、資料來源 9
2.1.1、東南亞時間序列研究 9
2.1.2、海表面溫度 10
2.1.3、海表面葉綠素 10
2.1.4、海表面風場 11
2.1.5、熱帶氣旋的最佳路徑 12
2.1.6、再分析的網格資料 12
2.2、模式介紹 15
2.2.1、大氣模式WRF 15
2.2.2、物理海洋模式POM 16
2.2.3、平行化的物理海洋模式mpiPOM與ATOP 18
2.2.4、NPZD生地化模式 19
2.2.5、CoSiNE生地化模式 23
第三章 研究方法 25
3.1、大氣模式WRF模擬玲玲颱風的設定 25
3.2、ATOP-NPZD耦合模式的發展與設定 26
3.2.1、南海海盆的氣候環境特徵 26
3.2.2、理想化模式的設定 34
3.2.3、耦合模式的數值實驗 61
第四章 ATOP-NPZD耦合模式之模擬結果與分析 63
4.1、耦合模式Chl-a模擬結果與SeaWiFS觀測之比較 63
4.2、耦合模式模擬結果的分析 65
4.2.1、一維模式的模擬結果 65
4.2.2、三維與一維模式結果的比較 67
4.2.3、三維模式中物理場的垂直剖面特徵 69
4.3、垂直環流胞與藻類繁生之增強 73
4.4、熱帶氣旋右側的藻類繁生 75
4.5、靜止與移動緩慢的熱帶氣旋數值實驗 81
4.6、網格解析度的敏感度數值實驗 84
4.6.1、水平網格解析度 84
4.6.2、垂直網格解析度 86
第五章 ATOP-Photo-SiNE耦合模式之發展與模擬結果之分析比較 89
5.1、Photo-SiNE生地化模式的發展 89
5.1.1、Photo-SiNE生地化模式之由來 89
5.1.2、Photo-SiNE生地化模式的描述 90
5.2、ATOP-Photo-SiNE耦合模式的發展與設定 99
5.2.1、一維耦合模式在SEATS測站的設定 99
5.2.2、三維耦合模式的數值實驗 102
5.3、一維耦合模式在SEATS測站的模擬結果 102
5.3.1、ATOP-Photo-SiNE的最佳化與CoSINE02模式的結果比較 102
5.3.2、氣候平均值驅動力下的模擬結果 104
5.3.3、熱帶風暴的個案 107
5.4、三維耦合模式的數值實驗結果 109
第六章 討論、結論與展望 112
6.1、討論 112
6.1.1、熱帶氣旋過後產生左右不對稱之機制 112
6.1.2、Photo-SiNE生地化模組之改進 114
6.2、結論 117
6.3、未來展望 119
參 考 文 獻 121
中文參考文獻: 121
英文參考文獻: 121
表 格 131
圖 檔 138
附 錄 215
附錄1、耦合模式補助之文件資料與圖檔 215
附錄2、Photo-SiNE生地化模式補助之圖檔 237
附錄3、博士班資格考口試的研究計劃 256
國際研討會之參與 309
發表之期刊論文(Publication SCI Papers) 317
參考文獻 中文參考文獻:
王麗文,2007:南海時間序列站之生地化年間變化研究:利用一維海洋生地化模式之探討,國立中山大學,海洋地質及化學研究所,博士論文。
陳致穎,2005:桃芝颱風(2001)數值模擬研究:颱風路徑與結構之模擬與分析,國立中央大學,大氣物理研究所,碩士論文。
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丁錡樺,2008:呂宋海峽內潮及其強化生地化通量之數值研究,國立中央,水文與海洋科學研究所,碩士論文。
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謝馥揚、王麗文、Chai, F., R、劉康克,2012: Simulation of diatom and non-diatom distributions in the northern South China Sea using the Photo-CoSiNE model,2012 海洋年會,海報展示。

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指導教授 林沛練、黃如瑤、劉康克(Pay-Liam Lin Leo Oey Kon-Kee Liu) 審核日期 2015-7-25
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