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論文名稱 有聲享驗:德妮思‧杜哈茉的詼諧詩分析
(In and Out of the Spoken Word: The Stand-up Poetry of Denise Duhamel)
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摘要(中) 德妮思.杜哈茉為美國當代詩壇裡最受歡迎的詩人之一。她的作品常見於各大文學雜誌、詩刊,並廣受各種不同年齡階層、性別取向、政治傾向、以及族群認同等讀者喜愛,因而被封為一親民文學運動:詼諧詩(Stand-Up Poetry)的代表人物。該標籤來自詩評人珊卓.塔林(Sandra Tarling)的研究,她指出詼諧詩的特點為幽默、白話,且多捕捉城市生活的光怪陸離,詼諧詩人(Stand-Up poet)師法美國特有的脫口喜劇(Stand-Up comedy)、有聲詩(Spoken Word)、和表演詩(performance poetry),將幽默與表演的元素注入詩作之中,作為對於美國當代主流詩派——抒情詩(lyric tradition),以及現代社會、文化(尤其消費主義)的生動回應。本文即以塔林的文論為出發,杜哈茉的生平、職涯為基本架構,輔以美國八○年代以降的詩文走勢,探討杜哈茉作為一個詼諧詩人、創作詼諧詩的養成經過,以及其詼諧詩所帶與讀者的迷人「享驗」(pleasure-seeking experience)。文中大量引用葛蘭.瑞奇(Graeme Ritchie)的笑話理論與約翰.萊曼(John Limon)的脫口喜劇研究,前者的不協調原則(incongruity)用於構築詼諧詩的基本形式與架構,後者的羞辱心理(abjection)則深入文化、社會層面,將詼諧詩的內容剖析至杜哈茉與其讀者之間的親和認同,進而凸顯杜哈茉詩中鼓勵女性突破禮教束縛、追求個人快樂的女性主義信念。本研究一方面確立杜哈茉於美國當代詩壇的地位與影響,另一方面也重新檢視塔林定義之詼諧詩,為其增補新意。
摘要(英) Denise Duhamel is a one-woman phenomenon in modern American poetry. Her work is read, heard and appreciated by a broad audience which crosses generations, as well as gender, political, racial and other divides. She has been identified as a seminal figure in the movement that has come to be known as stand-up poetry, and is one of the most acknowledged and reprinted American poets of recent decades.
This thesis considers Duhamel’’s work in the context of her life and career. It seeks to identify the characteristics of her poetry which account for her genre-transcending appeal, and to trace the genesis of those characteristics in her experiences, especially those during her time as a graduate student in the Creative Writing Program at Sarah Lawrence College in New York in the eighties.
One interesting and important factor is her use of humor in her poems, and her appropriation of elements from stand-up comedy (a feature often cited as the hallmark of stand-up poetry). A significant part of the present thesis is therefore devoted to an analysis of this much under-theorized area of literary culture, with a view to better understanding Duhamel’’s use of humor and “joke-work,” and in particular the way in which she makes use of comedy and comedic devices to build a rapport with her audience. This aspect of her work is compared and contrasted with the way in which similar themes are used by stand-up comics themselves, with a focus on the role played by the theme of abjection, and two great exponents of abject humor from past and present: Lenny Bruce, and Sarah Silverman.
Having considered these aspects in some detail, the thesis closes with a brief assessment of the characterization of Duhamel as a stand-up poet, and concludes that Sandra Tarling’’s definition of the stand-up poet as writing firstly for the page, and only subsequently for the stage, does not fit Duhamel especially well, since her poetry is first and foremost a performative endeavor.
關鍵字(中) ★ 詼諧詩
★ 德妮思‧杜哈茉
★ 女性主義
★ 表演詩
★ 有聲詩
關鍵字(英) ★ abjection
★ performance poetry
★ poetry slam
★ stand-up poetry
★ spoken word
★ Nuyorican Poets Cafe
★ stand-up comedy
★ Denise Duhamel
★ kinky
★ feminist poet
論文目次 Abstract i
中文摘要 ii
Acknowledgements iii
Chapter One:Introduction 1
Chapter Two:The Back-Story to Duhamel's Stand-Up Poetry 7
Chapter Three:The Comic Structure of Duhamel's Verse 26
Chapter Four:Humoring the Abject Body 43
Chapter Five:Conclusion 62
Works Cited 65
參考文獻 Books and Essays:
Aptowicz, Cristin O'Keefe. Words in Your Face: A Guided Tour through Twenty Years of the New York City Poetry Slam. New York: Soft Skull Press, 2007.
Algarin, Miguel, Bob Holman, and Nicole Blackman, eds. Aloud: Voices from the Nuyorican Poets Caf?. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 1994.
Barnstone, Willis. “Introduction” The New Spoon River. By Edgar Lee Masters. New York: Macmillan, 1968.
Bernstein, Charles, ed. Close Listening: Poetry and the Performed Word. New York: Oxford UP, 1998.
Brookshire, Austin. “An interview of Denise Duhamel,” in Ouroborous 3 (July 2009): 34-37.
Brunvand, Jan Harold. “A Classification for Shaggy Dog Stories,” The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 76, No. 299 (Jan. –Mar.. 1963), pp.42-68
Damon, Maria. “Was that ’Different,’ ‘Dissident’ or ‘Dissonant’? Poetry (n) the Public Spear: Slams, Open Readings, and Dissident Traditions.” Bernstein 324-342.
Drake, Jennifer. “Review: Third Wave Feminism,” in Feminist Studies, vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring 1997): 97-108.
Duhamel, Denise. Smile! Pennsylvania: Warm Spring Press, 1993.
--- The Woman with Two Vaginas. Texas: Salmon Run Press, 1994.
--- Kinky. Washington D.C.: Orchises Press, 1997.
--- Two and Two. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.
--- Ka-Ching! Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009
Freud, Sigmund. “Creative Writers and Daydreaming”. 1908.
Glazner, Gary. Poetry Slam: The Competitive Art of Performance Poetry. San Francisco: Manic D Press, Inc, 2000.
Glazer, Nathan, “The Lessons of New York City,” The Public Interest, No. 104 (1991:Summer). pp.37-49
Goodyear, Dana. “Quiet Depravity: The demure outrages of a standup comic,” in The New Yorker (October 2005): 50-55.
Levy, Ariel. “[Review]: Lift and Separate: Why is feminism still so divisive?” in The New Yorker (November 2009): 78-80
Limon, John. Stand-up Comedy in Theory, or, Abjection in America. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.
Parkes, M.B., Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Ritchie, Graeme. The Linguistic Analysis of Jokes. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Somers-Willet, Susan B.A. The Cultural Politics of Slam Poetry: Race, Identity, and the Performance of Popular Verse in America. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2009.
Tarling, Sandra. “Imperative: Stand Up Poetry in Los Angels, and Beyond,” in The Literary Life. March/April 2004.
Vendler, Helen. Invisible Listeners; Lyric Intimacy in Herbert, Whitman, and Ashbery. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005
Wheeler, Lesley. Voicing American Poetry: Sound and Performance from the 1920s to the Present. New York: Cornell University Press, 2008.
Web sources:
Heintz, Kurt. “An Incomplete History of Slam.” Feb 1999. 6 May 2008
Miazga, Mark. “The Spoken Word Movement of the 1990’s.” 15 Dec. 1998. 6 May 2008
The Nuyorican Poets Caf?. 2008. 20 April 2009 < http://www.nuyorican.org/>
Poetry Slam, Inc. 2007. 22 July 2008
Alger, Derek, “Denise Duhamel interviewed by Derek Alger,” Pif Magazine. 1995-2009. 5 Dec. 2006
Fink, Thomas. “Interview with Denise Duhamel and Nick Carbo.” Weblog entry. E-X-C-H-A-N-G-E-V-A-L-U-E-S. 10 Sep 2006. 5 Dec. 2006
Alvarez, Ivy. “Ivy Alvarez interviews Denise Duhamel,” Cordite Poetry Review. 23 March 2005. 5 Dec. 2006
Waterfield, Cesca Janece. “Divine and Returning: An Interviewed with Denise Duhamel,” Ghent Reader. 15 April 2006. 5 Dec. 2006
“Violence, Double Sestinas, and Barbie: An Interviewed with Denise Duhamel,” Sycamore Review. 2006. 5 Dec. 2006

“Denise Duhamel Interview by Philipe Nicolini,” MiPo Digital Magazine. Summer 2003. 13 Dec. 2006
“Jenni Russell Interviews Denise Duhamel.” MiPOesias Revista Literaria. Volume 19, Issue 3. May 2005. 13 Dec. 2006
指導教授 柏艾格(Steve Bradbury) 審核日期 2010-7-26
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