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姓名 陳韋臻(Wei-chen Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 庫爾貝裸女畫與大眾色情/情色文化的辨證
(The Dialectic Relation between Gustave Courbet's Nude and the Public Pornographic/Erotic Culture)
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摘要(中) 居斯塔夫.庫爾貝(Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877)為十九世紀法國寫實主義代表畫家,他筆下的人物可謂當時粗俗、現世、不容於藝術審美的最前線,沾上惡名的同時,也替自己塑立了高傲輕世的形象。直到到了六零年代,庫爾貝生產了一批具有強烈色情意味的裸女畫,為此,曾經捍衛庫爾貝的寫實主義支持者,反過來批判他;而曾經拒庫爾貝於門外的藝術殿堂,卻轉過身來擁抱他。這批畫作,包括《白襪女子》(Woman with White Stockings, 1861)、《女人與狗》(Woman with a Dog, 1861-62)、兩幅《維納斯與塞姬》(Venus and Psyche, 1864、1866)、《女人與鸚鵡》(Woman with a Parrot, 1866)、《睡眠》(The Sleepers, 1866),以及《世界的起源》(The Origin of the World, 1866),不僅在十九世紀被抨擊為猥褻創作,直到現今依然被女性主義者大力撻伐。
本論文即聚焦於庫爾貝這一系列的裸女畫,嘗試探尋蘊藏於其中的大眾色情元素,包含文學、版畫,以及最核心的,佔據了十九世紀後半葉歐洲色情文化版圖的色情攝影,打開這些繪畫與大眾文化之間互為經驗參照的解讀可能。色情的光暈所壟罩的,並非僅止於性事或性徵的再現,而是對映著每個時代觀者的認知隨而擴充或窄化。庫爾貝在此時的裸女畫,凝視的目光來自潛浸於大宗異質色情文化的十九世紀觀者,因此,兩者間共用的視覺語言,則開展出經驗的互文空間,並同時挪移了道德、情色卅色情,以及公卅私領域的界限。
從社會寫實到身體寫實,接續再往真實的色情發展,庫爾貝的作品興起當代藝術史學者的論戰,從精神分析女性主義者,再到當代性卅別理論的使用,隨著性卅別研究視角的轉換,庫爾貝身上也被貼上了不同,甚至相悖的標籤。本論文嘗試回到視覺材料的歷史中,放下對作者意識的探尋,旨在尋找到一條兼顧性卅別政治、歷史原貌以及觀者接收的研究路徑,呈現出庫爾貝色情裸女畫在社會結構中滋養出的性卅別能量,以及其所逾越的性卅別疆界。
摘要(英) In the 19th century, the idea of Realism in painting has been closely connected with the name of Gustave Courbet (1819-1877), who created the figures of vulgarity, mundanity, while againsting the aesthetics of the academic and traditional art. Courbet became a notorious artist in the 19th century, but made his own personification of arrogance and presumption at the same time. During the 1860s, Courbet produced a series of lewd and seductive nude, and the pornographic and obscene essence of these nude caused the other contemporary Realists to blame him. On the other hand, the Salon, who used to deal Courbet a blow, turned to honor him. The paintings, including Woman with White Stockings (1861), Woman with a Dog (1861-62), two Venus and Psyche (1864 & 1866), Woman with a Parrot (1866), The Sleepers (1866), and The Origin of the World (1866), were denounced as obscenity in the 19th century, and criticized by the feminists in the 20th century.
This thesis aims to focus on the public pornographic elements hiding behind the academic term “nude” in this series of paintings. The pornographic culture in the 19th century was widely presented in literature, engraving, and photography, among these mediums, the photography in the second half of the 19th century occupied the European pornographic cultural domain. The thesis concerns about how these paintings and the public culture referred to each other. The pornography is not named for the representation of the sex or the genital organs, but for the cognizance of spectators. However, the cognizance of pornography would be expanded or contracted in different epochs. Furthermore, Courbet’s nude shared similar visual language of public pornographic culture in the 19th century. The sharing visual language among these different representations would develop the sharing experiences, and at the same time, the co-text would move the boundary lines between moral/obscenity, erotica/pornography, and the public/private areas.
To sum up, base on the development of Courbet’s painting career, from the social realism to the reality of female body, and toward the realistic pornography, Courbet aroused the debates within modern art historians. Courbet was labeled in different, even contrary way, by psychoanalytical feminism and gender studies. This thesis tries to explore the sexual politics and the boundary of pornography presented by Courbet’s female. The interpretation of the series of paintings is beyond the author-function, but focusing on the history of visual materials, and to figure out the receiving motions of the spectators.
關鍵字(中) ★ 立體視鏡
★ 十九世紀
★ 色情
★ 情色
★ 女性主義
★ 大眾文化
★ 性別研究
★ 庫爾貝
★ 寫實主義
★ 裸女畫
★ 色情攝影
關鍵字(英) ★ erotica
★ Realism
★ Nude
★ public culture
★ Gustave Courbet
★ the 19th century
★ stereograph
★ gender studies
★ pornographic photography
★ pornography
★ feminism
論文目次 中文提要..................................................i
英文提要................................................iii
致謝......................................................v
目錄....................................................vii
序論......................................................1
研究動機與主旨............................................1
文獻回顧..................................................7
章節架構.................................................11
第一章 寫實主義者的裸女畫...............................13
第一節 庫爾貝主義者抑或寫實主義者?.....................13
第二節 寫實、肉感與色情──論庫爾貝裸女畫的轉變.........21
第二章 色情的建構.......................................35
第一節 現代色情的成形............................,......35
第二節 難馴的色情──十九世紀法國色情的生產與消費......45
第三節 色情與情色之界──論十九世紀後半葉的裸女攝影....53
第三章 開啟庫爾貝六零年代裸女畫的閱讀密碼...............63
第一節 色情異置入公卅私領域的修辭與編碼................63
第二節 女人們的陰毛、腳丫和閨房........................73
結論.....................................................85
寫實(主義)的裸女畫.....................................86
色情觀看機制的目光交錯...................................88
問題延伸.................................................90
參考文獻.................................................93
論文圖版.................................................98
參考文獻 參考文獻:
十九世紀文獻
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Condorcet, Marquis de. Fragment sur la liberté de la presse. Paris: Didot1, 1776.
Courbet, “Le Réalisme,” preface to Exhibition et Vente de 40 Tableaux & 4 Dessins de l’oeuvre de M. Gustave Courbet (Paris, 1855)
Delaborde, Henri. “La Photographie et la Gravure,” in Revue des Deux-Mondes. Paris: Au Bureau de la Revue des deux mondes, Mars-April, Table des Matiéres de 2ème volume, 1856.
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Théophile Silvestre, “VIII. Courbet, peintre”in Histoire des artistes vivants français et étrangers: Études d'après nature (Paris: Imprimerie de J. Claye, 1856 )
西文書目
Amic, Sylvain, Cars, Laurence des, Font-Réaulx, Dominique de. Galitz, Kathryn Calley. Gustave Courbet. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2008.
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Baudelaire, Baudelaire: Selected Writings on Art and Literature. trans. by P. E. Charvet. London: Penguin Group, 1972.
Bond, Anthony. Beaulieu, Jill. Body : Marina Abramovic, Francis Bacon, Balthus ... . Melbourne: Bookman Schwartz ; Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1997.
Brettell, Richard R. Modern Art 1851-1929-Capitalism and Representation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Caughie, John. Kuhn, Annette. Merck, Mandy. Creed, Barbara (ed.). The Sexual Subject: A Screen Reader in Sexuality. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
Chu, Petra ten-Doesschate (ed. and trans.). Letters of Gustave Courbet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Chu, Petra ten-Doesschate. Nineteenth-Century European Art. New York: Prentice-Hall and Harry N. Abrams, 2003.
Chu, Petra ten-Doesschate. The Most Arrogant Man in France: Gustave Courbet and the Nineteenth-Century Media Culture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007.
Clark, T. J. The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.
Dawkins, Heather. The Nude in French Art and Culture, 1870-1910. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
DeJean, Joan. Fictions of Sappho, 1546-1937. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Dennis, Kelly. Art/Porn: A History of Seeing and Touching. New York: BERG, 2009.
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Herding, Klaus. Courbet: To Venture Independence. trans. by J. W. Gabriel. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
Hugo, Victore. Sara la Baigneuse, dans Oeuvres poétiques, t. 1. Edited by Pierre Albouy. Paris: Gallimard, 1964.
Hunt, Lynn (ed.). The Invention of Pornography──Obscenity and the Origins of Modernity, 1500-1800. New York: Zone Books, 1993.
Kuhn, Annette. The Power of the Image: Essays on Representation and Sexuality. London: Routedge & Kegan Paul, 1985.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. Industrial Madness-Commercial Photography in Paris, 1848-1871. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994.
Mahon, Alyce. Eroticism & Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Mainardi, Patrician. Art and Politics of the Second Empire: The Universal Expositions of 1855 and 1867. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1989.
Muchembled, Robert. Orgasm and the West: A History of Pleasure from the 16th Century to the Present. trans. by David Fembach. Cambridge: Polity, 2008.
Nochlin, Linda. Courbet. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007.
Nochlin, Linda and Hess, Thomas B. (ed.). Woman as Sex Object: Studies in Erotic Art, 1730-1970. New York: Alvin Garfin, 1972.
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Perrot, Philippe. Fashioning the bourgeoisie : a history of clothing in the nineteenth century. New Jersety: Princeton University Press, 1994.
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Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. Photography at the Dock-Essays on Photographic History, Institutions, and Practices. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
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Turker, Deniz. The Oriental Flâneur: Khalil Bey and the Cosmopolitan Experience. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007.
期刊文章
Chu, Petra ten-Doesschate. “Gustave Courbet’s Venus and Psyche: Uneasy Nudity in Second-Empire France,” Art Journal: Vol. 51: No. 1, Spring: 1992, pp. 38-44
Desbuissons, Frédérique, “Courbet’s Materialism,” trans. by Edward Payne. Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2008, pp. 252-260.
Haskell, Francis. “A Turk and his Pictures in Nineteenth-Century Paris,” Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Patronage, 1982, pp.40-47.
Kosinski, Dorothy M. “Gustave Courbet’s The Sleepers. The Lesbian Image in Nineteenth-Century French Art and Literature,” Artibus et Historiae, Vol. 9: No. 18. 1988, pp. 187-199.
Morgan, Thaïs E. “Male Lesbian Bodies: The Construction of Alternative Masculinities in Courbet, Baudelaire, and Swinburne,” Genders 15, Winter: 1992, pp. 35-57.
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中文書目
Broude, Norma. Garrard, Mary D. (ed.),《女性主義與藝術歷史:擴充論述》,謝鴻均等譯,台北:遠流,1998。
Clark, Kenneth,《裸藝術-探究完美形式》,吳玫、甯延明譯,台北:先覺出版有限公司,2004。
Crary, Jonathan,《觀察者的技術──論十九世紀的視覺與現代性》,蔡佩君譯,台北:行人,2007。
Nochlin, Linda,《女性,藝術與權力》,台北:遠流,2005。
甯應斌、何春蕊(編),《色情無價:認真看待色情》,桃園縣中壢市:中央大學性卅別研究室,2008。
網路資料
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Férand, Jean-François. Dictionnaire critique de la langue française (Marseille, Mossy, 1787-1788),民98年3月31日,取自:http://portail.atilf.fr/cgi-bin/dico1look.pl?strippedhw=obsc%E8ne&headword=&docyear=ALL&dicoid=ALL&articletype=1。
Latournerie, Anne. “Petite histoire des batailles du droit d’auteur,” dans Multitudes 5, mai 2001,民98年3月31日,取自:http://multitudes.samizdat.net/article168.html。
指導教授 曾少千(Shao-Chien Tseng) 審核日期 2010-7-28
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