博碩士論文 952207002 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:4 、訪客IP:3.235.105.97
姓名 李冠樵(Kuan-Chiao Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 以行為及事件相關腦電位探討處理層次與聯結性登錄方式對記憶連結錯誤之影響
(The Effects of Processing Depth and Association on Memory Conjunction Errors: Behavioral and ERP Studies)
相關論文
★ 意旁結合度、意旁表意透明度對中文閱讀的影響★ 以行為及事件相關電位探討中文雙字詞的記憶聯結錯誤
★ 項目指示遺忘效果的行為與事件相關電位研究★ 項目指示遺忘作業中記憶登錄及提取歷程的行為及事件相關腦電位研究
★ 以語意促發作業探討項目指示遺忘中線索對於記憶登錄歷程影響之行為及事件相關腦電位研究★ 特定與非特定來源記憶提取的行為及事件相關腦電位
★ 中文字詞辨識的語音運作單位★ 由語意透明度所引發的再認記憶鏡像效應:行為與事件相關腦電位研究
★ 登錄作業對於中文雙字詞語意透明度在再認記憶中所引發鏡像效應之影響:行為及事件相關腦電位實驗★ 以事件相關腦電位探討細節性與概要性記憶的提取導向
★ 以行為及事件相關腦電位實驗探討前瞻記憶線索出現機率對於前瞻干擾效果的影響★ 以跨顱電刺激與事件相關腦電位探討左側後頂葉腦區於再認記憶中所扮演之角色
★ 測驗表現回饋對測驗效應之調控的行為與事件相關腦電位研究★ 以非侵入式腦刺激探討左後側頂葉與情節記憶提取之因果關係
★ 中文假字形聲限制高低對於試誤與無誤學習之影響的行為與事件相關腦電位研究★ 情緒入碼情境對於記憶登錄與提取中的控制歷程之影響
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 本研究結合記憶聯結錯誤的實驗典範與「記得/知道」程序,於登錄階段操弄處理層次與聯結性作業,比較重拾記憶(recollection)與熟悉感(familiarity)在不同登錄情境所產生之記憶聯結錯誤所扮演角色,並於記憶提取階段紀錄事件相關腦電位(event-related brain potentials, ERPs),結合行為與電生理資料探討比較記憶聯結錯誤的「處理歷程解釋」以及「記憶表徵解釋」。實驗1採用受試者間設計,在深層處理(實驗1-1)與淺層處理(實驗1-2)的登錄情境下,操弄聯結性登錄的方式(聯結性處理 vs.非聯結性處理):深層聯結組的受試者對學習項目進行造句難易度判斷;深層非聯結組則對學習項目進行造詞難易度判斷;淺層聯結組對學習項目中的兩個刺激字進行筆畫比較判斷;淺層非聯結組則需對學習項目中的兩個刺激字分別進行筆畫判斷。在隨後的測驗階段,受試者對舊項目(old item)、聯結項目(conjunction item)、部件項目(feature item)以及新項目(new item) 四類測驗刺激進行「新/舊」判斷,並對做出「舊」反應的項目進行「記得/知道」的判斷。實驗1結果顯示,在深層處理的情況下,聯結性登錄方式影響聯結項目的「記得」反應,此結果與「記憶表徵解釋」的預測相符。而在淺層處理的情況下,聯結性登錄方式則對聯結項目的「記得」與「知道」的判斷均未造成影響,表示聯結性登錄方式對於聯結錯誤引發重拾記憶的影響會隨著處理層次而有所不同。實驗2使用和實驗1-1相同的設計,並同時記錄受試者的電生理訊號。實驗2的行為結果與實驗1-1一致,亦即聯結項目的「記得」反應多寡會受到聯結性登錄方式的影響。然而,實驗2的電生理結果卻與行為結果並不一致:聯結錯誤所引發與重拾記憶相關的頂葉新舊效果,並未受到聯結性登錄方式的調節;而聯結錯誤所引發與熟悉感相關的中額葉新舊效果,卻會受到聯結性登錄的方式所調節,表示「記得/知道」判斷與相關電位新舊效果兩種測量方式在本質上是不相同的。儘管在行為與電生理結果的不一致,「記憶表徵解釋」較能對實驗1與實驗2的結果提出合理解釋。因此,記憶聯結錯誤的發生可能有部分成因來自於登錄階段時刺激部件的結合歷程。
摘要(英) This study incorporated memory conjunction error paradigm and Remember/Know procedure to investigate whether depth of processing and associative encoding modulate the false recollection in memory conjunction errors. In Experiment 1 processing depth (deep vs. shallow) and associative encoding (associative vs. non-associative) were manipulated at study. At test, subjects made old/new judgments to old, conjunction, feature, and new testing items. The Remember/know procedure was also employed. It was found that the Remember response to conjunction item was modulated by associative vs. non-associative encoding (Experiment 1-1), a result that was consistent with the Representational account. The manipulation of associative vs. non-associative was however absent under the shallow encoding condition (Experiment 1-2). Experiment 2 adopted the same procedure as Experiment 1-1 and ERPs were recorded at test. The behavioral results shown in Experiment 1-1 were replicated in Experiment 2. However, there were inconsistencies between behavioral and ERP data. In spite of more Remember responses for conjunction items in non-associative condition in comparison to associative condition, the parietal effect thought to index recollection-based recognition was of similar magnitudes for conjunction errors in these two conditions. In contrast, the mid-frontal effect, thought to reflect familiarity processes in recognition, was different for conjunction errors in the two conditions. The discrepancy between Remember/Know data and ERP data suggests that these two measures may not index recollection and familiarity in the same way. Despite this discrepancy, Representation account still provides more reasonable explanation for the results of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Consequently, the failure of binding stimuli parts during encoding may be the partial cause for the occurrence of memory conjunction errors.
關鍵字(中) ★ 事件相關腦電位
★ 重拾記憶
★ 熟悉感歷程
關鍵字(英) ★ ERPs
★ familiarity
★ recollection
論文目次 中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… ii
誌謝辭………………………………………………………………………………iii
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………vii
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………… viii
第一章 記憶聯結錯誤 1
1.1 緒論 1
1.2記憶聯結錯誤(Memory Conjunction Errors)的研究 1
1.3 解釋記憶聯結錯誤的理論與支持證據 3
1.3.1 「記憶表徵解釋」的觀點 3
1.3.2 「處理歷程解釋」的觀點 10
1.4 小結 13
1.5處理層次(Levels of Processing) 14
1.6 聯結性登錄(Associative Encoding) 16
1.7 總結 23
第二章 記憶聯結錯誤的事件相關電位研究 25
2.1 事件相關電位 25
2.2再認記憶提取階段的事件相關電位研究 26
2.2.1 早期額葉區新舊效果(The Early Frontal Old/New Effect) 27
2.2.2 左頂葉區新舊效果(Left Parietal Old/New Effect) 28
2.2.3 右額葉區新舊效果(Right Frontal Old/New Effect) 30
2.2.4 晚期負向波型新舊效果(Late Negativity Old/New Effect) 32
2.3 處理層次的事件相關電位研究 34
2.4 聯結性登錄的事件相關電位研究 35
2.5 記憶聯結錯誤的事件相關電位研究 37
第三章 實驗1-1(行為實驗) 39
3.1 實驗方法 40
3.2 實驗1-1結果與討論 44
3.2.1 困難度判斷(學習階段) 45
3.2.2 新舊判斷(測驗階段) 46
3.2.3 記得知道判斷(測驗階段) 48
3.3 小結(實驗1-1) 53
第四章 實驗1-2(行為實驗) 54
4.1 實驗方法 54
4.2 實驗1-2結果與討論 55
4.2.1 學習階段 56
4.2.2 新舊判斷(測驗階段) 57
4.2.3 記得知道判斷 58
4.3 小結(實驗1-2) 60
4.4 實驗1-1與實驗1-2結果合併與討論 62
4.4.2 新舊判斷 62
4.4.3 記得知道判斷 63
4.5 總結 65
第五章 實驗2(事件相關電位研究) 67
5.1 實驗方法 67
5.2 實驗結果 70
5.2.1 行為資料分析 70
5.2.2 ERP振幅分析 76
5.3 討論 97
5.3.1行為結果 97
5.3.2 ERP結果 99
第六章 綜合討論 102
6.1 實驗結果與討論 102
6.2 結論 110
參考文獻 112
附錄 118
附錄一:學習階段指導語(DA組) 118
附錄二:學習階段指導語(DN組) 119
附錄三:學習階段指導語(SA組) 120
附錄四:學習階段指導語(SN組) 121
附錄五:測驗階段指導語 122
附錄六:實驗刺激材料 123
附錄七:ERP波形分析所包含的電極在頭皮上分佈示意圖 131
參考文獻 王孟豪(2006)。以行為及事件相關電位探討中文雙字詞的記憶聯結錯誤。未發表之碩士論文。國立中央大學認知神經科學研究所,桃園。
Allan, K., & Rugg, M. D. (1997). An event-related potential study of explicit memory on tests of cued recall and recognition. Neuropsychologia, 35, 387-397.
Allan, K., Wilding, E. L., & Rugg, M. D. (1998). Electrophysiological evidence for dissociable processes contributing to recollection. Acta Psychologica (Amst), 98(2-3), 231-252.
Atkinson, R. C., & Juola, J. F. (1974). Search and decision processes in recognition memory. In D.H.Krantz, R. C. Atkinson, R. D. Luce, & P. Suppes (Eds.), Contemporary developments in mathematical psychology (pp. 243-293). San Francisco: Freeman.
Azimian-Faridani, N. & Wilding, E.L. (2006). The influence of criterion shifts on electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1075-1086.
Craik, F.I.M. and Lockhart,R.S. (1972) Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.
Craik, F.I.M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268 - 294.
Curran, T. (2000). Brain potentials of recollection and familiarity. Memory and Cognition, 28, 923-938.
Cycowicz, Y. M., Friedman, D., & Snodgrass, J. G. (2001). Remembering the colour of objects: An ERP investigation of sourcememory. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 322–334.
Donaldson, D. I., & Rugg, M. D. (1998). Recognition memory for new associations: Electrophysiological evidence for the role of recollection. Neuropsychologia, 36, 377-395.
Donaldson, D.I., Rugg, M.D., 1999. Event-related potential studies of associative recognition and recall: electrophysiological evidence for context dependent retrieval processes. Cogn. Brain Res. 8, 1–16.
Dosher, B. A. (1984). Discriminating preexperimental (semantic) from learned (episodic) associations: A speed-accuracy study. Cognitive Psychology, 16, 519–555.
Duzel, E., Yonelinas, A. P., Mangun, G. R., Heinze, H.-J., & Tulving, E. (1997). Event-related brain potential correlates of two states of conscious awareness in memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 5973-5978.
Elias, C. S., & Perfetti, C. A. (1973). Encoding task and recognition memory: The importance of semantic encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99, 151-156.
Friedman, D., Cycowicz, Y. M., & Bersick,M. (2005). The late negative episodic memory effect: The effect of recapitulating study details at test. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 185–198.
Gardiner, J. M. (1988). Functional aspects of recollective experience. Memory and Cognition, 16, 309-313.
Gardiner, J. M., & Parkin, A. J. (1990). Attention and recollective experience in recognition memory. Memory & Cognition, 18, 579-583.
Gardiner, J. M., Java, R. I. & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1996). How level of processing really influences awareness in recognition memory. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50, 114-122.
Ghatala, E. S., Levin, J. R., Bell, J. A., Truman, D. L., & Lodico, M. G. (1978). The effect of semantic and nonsemantic factors on the integration of verbal units in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 647–655.
Giovanello K. S., Keane M. M., Verfaellie M. (2006). The contribution of familiarity to associative memory in amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1859–1865.
Hannigan, S. L. & Reinitz, M.T. (2000). Influences of temporal factors on memory conjuntion errors. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 309-321.
Herron, J.E., (2007). Decomposition of the ERP late posterior negativity: effects of retrieval and response fluency. Psychophysiology, 44, 233–244.
Herron J. E., Quayle A. H., Rugg M. D. (2003). Probability effects on event-related potential correlates of recognition memory. Cognitive Brain Research, 16(1), 66-73.
Hintzman, D. L. & Curran, T. (1994). Retrieval dynamics of recognition and frequency judgments: Evidence for separate processes of familiarity and recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 1-18.
Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513–541.
Jacoby, L. L., Woloshyn, V., & Kelley, C. (1989). Becoming famous without being recognized: Unconscious influences of memory produced by dividing attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 115–125.
Johnson, M.K., & Chalfonte, B.L. (1994). Binding complex memories: The role of reactivation and the hippocampus. In D.L. Schacter & E. Tulving (Eds.), Memory Systems 1994 (pp. 311-350). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Johansson, M., & Mecklinger, A. (2003). The late posterior negativity in ERP studies of episodic memory: action monitoring and retrieval of attribute conjunctions. Biol Psychol, 64(1-2), 91-117.
Johansson, M., Stenberg, G., Lindgren, M., Rosén, I., 2002. Memory for perceived and imagined pictures: an event-related potential study. Neuropsychologia, 40, 986–1002.
Jones, T. C. (2005). Study repetition and the rejection of conjunction lures. Memory, 13, 499-515.
Jones, T. C., Brown, A. S., & Atchley, P. (2007). Feature and conjunction effects in recognition memory: Toward specifying familiarity for compound words. Memory & Cognition, 35, 984-998.
Jones, T. C., & Jacoby, L. L. (1997, November). Feature and conjunction errors in recognition: Familiarity in the absence of recollection. Poster presented at the 38th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia, PA.
Jones, T. C. & Jacoby, L. L. (2001). Feature and conjunction errors in recognition memory: Evidence for dual-process theory. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 82-102.
Jones, T. C., & Jacoby, L. L.(2005). Conjunction errors in recognition memory: modality-free errors for older adults but not for young adults. Acta Psychologica, 120, 55-73.
Jones, T. C., Jacoby, L. L. & Gellis, L. A. (2001). Cross-Modal feature and conjunction errors in recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 44,131-152
Kroll, N. E. A., Knight, R. T., Metcalfe, J., Wolf, E. S., & Tulving, E. (1996). Cohesion failure as a source of memory illusioins. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 176-196.
Lampinen, J. M., Odegard, T. N., & Neuschatz, J. S. (2004). Robust recollection rejection in the memory conjunction paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 2, 332-342.
Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review, 87, 252–271.
Mayes, A., Montaldi, D., & Migo, E. (2007). Associative memory and the medial temporal lobes. Trends Cogn Sci, 11(3), 126-135.
Mecklinger, A., Johansson, M., Parra, M., & Hanslmayr, S. (2007). Source-retrieval requirements influence late ERP and EEG memory effects. Brain Res, 1172, 110-123.
Moscovitch, M. (1994). Memory and working with memory: Evaluation of a component process model and comparisons with other models. In D. L. Schacter, E. Tulving, E. (Eds.), Memory systems 1994 (pp. 269–310). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Nessler, D., & Mecklinger, A. (2003). ERP correlates of true and false recognition after different retention delays: Stimulus- and responserelated processes. Psychophysiology, 40, 146–159.
Nessler, D., Mecklinger, A., & Penney, T. B. (2001). Event related brain potentials and illusory memories: The effects of differential encoding. Cognitive Brain Research, 10, 283–301.
Odegard, T. N., & Lampinen, J. M. (2004). Memory conjunction error for autobiographical events: More than just familiarity. Memory, 12, 288-300.
Odegard, T. N., Lampinen, J. M., & Toglia, M. P. (2005). Meaning’s moderating effect on recollection rejection. Journal of Memory & Language, 53, 416-429.
Paller, K.A., & Mayes, A.R. (1994). New-association priming of word identification in normal and amnesic subjects. Cortex, 30, 53-73.
Prinzmetal, W., Presti, D. E., & Posner, M. I. (1986). Does attention affect visual feature integration? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12, 361–369.
Quamme, J. R., Yonelinas, A.P., & Norman, K. A. (2007). Effect of unitization on associative recognition in amnesia. Hippocampus, 17, 192-200.
Ranganath, C., & Paller, K. A. (1999). Frontal brain potentials during recognition are modulated by requirements to retrieve perceptual details. Neuron, 22, 605-613.
Reinitz, M. T., & Demb, J. B. (1994). Implicit and explicit memory for compound words. Memory and Cognition, 22, 687-694.
Reinitz, M. T., & Hannigan, S. L. (2001). Effects of simultaneous stimulus presentation and attention switching on memory conjunction errors. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 206-219.
Reinitz, M. T., & Hannigan, S. L. (2004). False memories for compound words: Role of working memory. Memory and Cognition, 32, 463-473.
Reinitz, M. T., Lammers, W. J., & Cochran, B. P. (1992). Memory-conjunction errors: Miscombination of stored stimulus features can produce illusions of memory. Memory and Cognition, 20, 1-11.
Rajaram, S. (1993). Remembering and knowing: Two means of access to the personal past. Memory and Cognition, 21, 89-102.
Reinitz, M. T., Morrissey, J., & Demb, J. (1994). Role of attention in face encoding.
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1, 161-168.
Reinitz, M. T., Verfaellie, M. & Milberg, W. P. (1996). Memory conjunction errors in normal and amnesic subjects. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 286-299.
Rhodes, S. & Donaldson, D.I. (2008) Electrophysiological evidence for the effect of interactive imagery on episodic memory: Encouraging familiarity for non-unitized stimuli during associative recognition. NeuroImage, 39: 873-84.
Roediger, H. L. (1996). Memory illusions. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 76-100.
Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803–814.
Rubin, S. R., Petten, C. V., Glisky, E. L. & Newberg W. M. (1999). Memory conjunction error s in younger and older adults: event-related potential and neuropsychological data. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 16, 459-488.
Rugg, M. D., & Curran, T. (2007). Event-related potentials and recognition memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 , 251-257.
Rugg, M. D., Mark, R. E., Walla, P., Schloerscheidt, A. M., Birch, C. S., & Allan, K. (1998). Dissociation of the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory. Nature, 392(6676), 595–598.
Rugg, M.D. and Yonelinas, A.P., 2003. Human recognition memory: A cognitive neuroscience perspective. Trends in Cognitive Science 7, pp. 313–319.
Rugg, M. D., & Wilding, E. L. (2000). Retrieval processing and episodic memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 108-115.
Schacter, D.L. & Graf, P. (1986). Preserved learning in amnesic patients: Perspectives from research on direct priming. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 727-743.
Shimamura, A. P., and Squire, L. R.(1984). Paired-associate learning and priming effects in amnesia: A neuropsychological study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 556-570.
Smith, M. E. (1993). Neurophysiological manifestations of recollective experience during recognition memory judgments. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 1-13.
Stark, C. E. L., & Squire, L. R. (2003). Hippocampal damage equally impairs memory for single items and memory for conjunctions. Hippocampus, 13, 281-292.
Treisman, A., & Schmidt, H. (1982). Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 107-141.
Trott, C. T., Ritter, W., Fabiani, M., & Snodgrass, J. G. (1999). Episodic priming and memory for temporal source: Event-related potentials reveal age-related differences in prefrontal functioning. Psychology and Aging, 14, 390-413.
Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology , 26, 1-12.
Underwood, B. J., & Zimmerman, J. (1973). The syllable as a source of error in multisyllable word recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 701–706.
Underwood, B. J., Kapelak, S. M., & Malmi, R. A. (1976). Integration of discrete verbal units in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 293–300.
Vallesi, A. & Shallice, T. (2006). Prefrontal involvement in source memory: an electrophysiological investigation of accounts concerning confidence and accuracy. Brain Research, 1124, 111-125.
Weyerts, H., Tendolkar, I., Smid, H. G., & Heinze, H. J. (1997). ERPs to encoding and recognition in two different inter-item association tasks. NeuroReport, 8, 1583-1588.
Wilding, E. L. (1999). Separating retrieval strategies from retrieval success: An event-related potential study of source memory. Neuropsychologia, 37, 441-454.
Wilding, E. L., & Rugg, M. D. (1996). An event-related potential study of recognition memory with and without retrieval of source. Brain, 119, 889-905.
Winocur, G., & Weiskrantz, L. (1976). An investigation of paired-associate learning in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia , 14, 97–110.
Woodruff, C. C., Hayama, H. R., & Rugg, M. D. (2006). Electrophysiological dissociation of the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity. Brain Research, 1100, 125-135.
Yonelinas, A. P., Kroll, N. E. A., Dobbins, I. G., & Soltani, M. (1999). Recognition memory of faces: When familiarity supports associative recognition judgments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(4), 654–661.
Yonelinas, A. P., & Jacoby, L. L. (1994). Dissociations of processes in recognition memory: Effects of interference and of response speed. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 516–534.
Yonelinas, A. P., & Jacoby, L. L. (1995). The relation between remembering and knowing as bases for recognition: Effects of size congruency. Journal of Memory and Language, 34, 622-643.
Yonelinas, A. P., & Levy, B. J. (2002). Dissociating familiarity from recollection in human recognition memory: Different rates of forgetting over short retention intervals. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 575-582.
指導教授 鄭仕坤(Shih-kuen Cheng) 審核日期 2008-12-4
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明