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姓名 林宜親(Yi-chin Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 學齡前兒童之視覺注意力發展及電腦化注意力訓練效果之探討
(Attentional efficiency & the training effect of visual attention in preschool children)
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摘要(中) 視覺注意力對於兒童在學習許多較高階、複雜的技能例如閱讀、算數、甚至是情緒調控時皆扮演著一個重要且基礎的角色。近來許多腦科學與認知神經科學的研究已揭示了視覺注意力網絡的大腦神經基礎。從腦造影研究證據提出視覺注意力可被細分為三種主要的子功能,分別是警覺性網絡 (alerting)、導向性網絡 (orienting)、以及執行控制網絡 (executive control),而注意力網絡測驗 (attention network test) 可以用來評估這三種注意力網絡。Rueda et al. (2004) 使用兒童版本的注意力網絡測驗來研究兒童的注意力發展情形,除此之外,Rueda et al. (2005)以針對執行控制功能設計的注意力訓練遊戲 (attention training program) 來訓練四歲與六歲兒童,從腦電波資料發現經過注意力訓練的兒童在衝突解決 (conflict resolution) 上的能力相較於控制組來的成熟,另外智力也有增進。
本研究目的想探討學齡前兒童注意力發展曲線以及注意力訓練在學齡前兒童身上之效果。實驗使用針對執行控制功能設計之注意力訓練對學齡年兒童進行注意力訓練,並在訓練前後以不同之作業,包含注意力網絡作業、停止信號作業、智力相關測驗、視覺搜尋作業、以及整體 / 部份作業,用來評估訓練之效果。實驗一與實驗二操弄不同之訓練長度及天數來探討是否訓練期間可以影響訓練效果量。結果發現經過較長期間及天數之注意力訓練後,觀察到較大之訓練效果趨勢,主要在算術測驗得到訓練組相較於控制組在注意訓練後分數顯著增進之效果,另外在衝突解決分數、智力相關分數也有觀察到訓練組相較於控制組在注意訓練後增進較多之趨勢,雖然結果未達顯著水準。注意力訓練效果之研究目前只得到初步的趨勢,距離注意力訓練能有效並且能幫助兒童在學習上表現之結論尚需更多研究與證據支持。
摘要(英) Visual attention is essential for acquiring higher cognitive functions like memory, reading, mathematics and even emotional control. Recent studies in attention had categorized visual attention into three sub-functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control (including conflict monitoring). Furthermore, attention networks in the brain have been revealed. The networks include both subcortical and cortical brain areas where keep developing until adolescence. Many studies have demonstrated that attention and other cognitive functions can be facilitated with certain training protocols. The aim of this study is to investigate the development trajectories of visual attention in Taiwanese children and the effect of attention training in preschool children. In study 1, we used the same program with Rueda et al. (2005) to train preschool children. Moreover, child version ANT, Raven’ progressive matrices test, stop signal paradigm and 4 subtests of WSPPI-R were applied in the evaluation of the effect after 5 days of attention training. In study II, visual conjunction search task and global/local task were added to test training effectiveness. Training period was adjusted to 8 days in order to make their effects more obvious. The results showed some progress that training groups made in conflict resolution, arithmetic, and non-verbal IQ performance after 8 days of training. In the analysis of development trajectories, results showed as age increases, the ability of inhibitory control improved significantly. However we have not yet observed the developmental trajectories of attention network. In the future, we plan to establish the completed development trajectories of visual attention in children aged 4~7, and to investigate the relationship between training effect and learning performance.
關鍵字(中) ★ 注意力訓練
★ 執行控制功能
★ 視覺注意力功能
關鍵字(英) ★ attention network
★ executive control
★ attention training
論文目次 中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………………… i
英文摘要 …………………………………………………………………………… ii
致謝辭 …………………………………………………………………………… iii
目錄 …………………………………………………………………………… iv
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………………………… v
表目錄 …………………………………………………………………………… vi
第一章 緒論 ……………………………………………………………………… 1
前言 ……………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 注意力功能 ……………………………………………………………… 2
1.1.1 注意力網絡理論 ………………………………………………………… 2
1.1.2 注意力網絡作業 ………………………………………………………… 5
1.2 注意力與學習之關聯 …………………………………………………… 7
1.3 注意力網絡發展及敏感期 ……………………………………………… 8
1.4 注意力功能發展缺陷 …………………………………………………… 11
1.5 大腦可塑性與注意力訓練 ……………………………………………… 11
1.6 研究動機與目的 ………………………………………………………… 17
第二章 實驗一 …………………………………………………………………… 19
2.1 介紹 ……………………………………………………………………… 19
2.1.1 停止信號典範 …………………………………………………………… 19
2.1.2 瑞文氏圖形推理測驗 …………………………………………………… 21
2.1.3 魏氏幼兒智力測驗 ……………………………………………………… 21
2.2 實驗方法 ………………………………………………………………… 22
2.3 實驗結果 ………………………………………………………………… 29
2.4 討論 ……………………………………………………………………… 34
第三章 實驗二 …………………………………………………………………… 36
3.1 介紹 ……………………………………………………………………… 36
3.1.1 視覺搜尋作業 …………………………………………………………… 36
3.1.2 整體 / 部分典範………………………………………………………… 38
3.2 實驗2-1 方法 …………………………………………………………… 39
3.3 實驗2-2 方法 …………………………………………………………… 41
3.4 實驗結果 ………………………………………………………………… 44
3.5 討論 ……………………………………………………………………… 51
第四章 發展曲線趨勢分析 ……………………………………………………… 54
4.1 介紹 ……………………………………………………………………… 54
4.2 發展趨勢分析結果 ……………………………………………………… 56
4.3 跨年齡層訓練效果分析結果 …………………………………………… 61
4.4 討論 ……………………………………………………………………… 64
第五章 綜合討論 ………………………………………………………………… 67
5.1 注意力訓練 ……………………………………………………………… 67
5.2 兒童發展趨向 …………………………………………………………… 70
5.3 結論 ……………………………………………………………………… 71
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………………………… 73
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指導教授 阮啟弘(Chi-hung Juan) 審核日期 2008-7-23
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