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姓名 林瑜芳(Yu-fang Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 小汽車共乘公平性配對模式暨求解演算法之研究
(Matching Model and Heuristic Algorithm for Fairness in the Carpool Problem)
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摘要(中) 近年來交通量成長迅速,小汽車之使用亦日益普遍,透過共乘除可提高小汽車之乘載率,亦可紓解都市交通雍塞;且有鑑於目前全球油價上漲,實施共乘可減低旅行成本以及節約能源。推行小汽車共乘的優點甚多,但共乘是否具公平性會影響民眾參與共乘的意願。在目前實務小汽車共乘的配對上,多採用人工經驗排班方式缺乏系統分析,故求解除缺乏效率外,亦難以確保效果。在學術上,以往文獻討論共乘公平性問題僅以駕駛次數考量,並無將駕駛距離納入考量。緣此,本研究將距離納入考量範圍內,並針對城際間長期(例如一週每日)通勤旅次,以共乘配對系統規劃者的角度,建立一系統最佳化之配對模式,期能提供有效的規劃輔助工具,幫助決策者有效地進行規劃。
本研究使用網路流動技巧與數學規劃方法建立一多起迄之小汽車共乘配對模式,同時考量成本最小化以及公平性。而在網路設計上,加上一些額外的限制,以滿足實務的營運條件。此模式可定式為整數多重網路流動問題,屬NP-hard問題,為有效求解大規模問題,本研究利用拉氏鬆弛法暨次梯度法為基礎,發展有效的求解演算法。最後評估本研究中模式與演算法之實用績效,設計電腦隨機產生器產生不同的測試例,進行本研究之範例測試並針對不同參數進行敏感度分析,測試效果良好,最後提出結論與建議。
摘要(英) Respecting global petroleum price goes up, traffic volume has significantly grown and private cars become more popular than before in Taiwan. Therefore, carpool that enhances the car occupancy rate can not only relieve traffic congestion, but can also cheapen the travel cost and save energy. Introducing the carpool has a lot of advantages, but fairness would affect carpool members that join in the activity. As regards in Taiwan, carpool matching is manually performed by planning personnels with experience in current practice, without a systematic analysis. Such a manual approach is considered to be less efficient, and can possibly result in an inferior feasible solution. The carpool problems with the consideration of fairness were solved according to the frequency of being a driver in literatures, instead of the driving distances. Therefore, in this research, the travel distances in the carpool problem is considered for the long-term intercity commute trips to address the issue. Based on the system planner perspective, we develop a system-optimized matching model. The matching model is expected to be an effective tool for the planner to help solve carpool members matching.
We consider many-to-many OD matching focusing on fairness in the carpool problem. Additional constraints are set to comply with real operating requirements. Model is formulated as an integer multiple commodity network flow problem, which is characterized as NP-hard and cannot be optimally solved in a reasonable time for large-scale problems. Therefore, to efficiently solve large-scale problems occurring in real world, we develop a solution algorithm for the model, based on Lagrangian relaxation with subgradient methods. To evaluate the matching model and solution algorithm in practice, we perform a case study. A computerized random generator is designed to create different problem instances used for testing. The results show the model could be useful. Finally, conclusions and suggestions are given.
關鍵字(中) ★ 時空網路
★ 多重貨物網路流動
★ 拉氏鬆弛法
★ 公平性
★ 小汽車共乘
關鍵字(英) ★ Lagrangian relaxation
★ multiple commodity network flow problem
★ time-space network
★ fairness
★ carpool
論文目次 摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
目 錄 III
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的與範圍 2
1.3研究方法與流程 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1共乘定義 4
2.2小汽車共乘相關文獻 6
2.3撥召共乘相關文獻 8
2.4時空網路的相關文獻 11
2.5分解式演算法的相關文獻 14
2.6文獻評析 17
第三章 模式構建 18
3.1模式基本條件或已知資訊 18
3.2成本最小化及公平性之小汽車共乘配對模式 20
3.2.1時空網路 20
3.2.1.1車流時空網路 21
3.2.1.2人流時空網路 23
3.2.2模式符號說明 24
3.2.3數學定式 26
3.3模式應用 28
3.4小結 29
第四章 求解演算法設計 30
4.1目標值下限 32
4.1.1鬆弛公平性及車容量限制式(F1) 32
4.1.2鬆弛車容量限制式(F2) 35
4.1.3鬆弛公平性限制式(F3) 35
4.1.4混合整數問題(MIP) 36
4.2目標值上限 36
4.3收斂機制及求解步驟 41
4.4人車配對 43
4.5小結 44
第五章 範例測試 45
5.1輸入資料 45
5.1.1車輛規劃資料 45
5.1.2共乘旅次資料 47
5.1.3基準距離(T) 47
5.2模式發展 47
5.2.1問題規模 47
5.2.2模式輸入資料 48
5.3電腦演算環境及設定 49
5.3.1電腦演算環境 49
5.3.2相關程式設定 49
5.3.3模式輸出資料 50
5.4測試結果與分析 50
5.5敏感度分析 54
5.5.1基準距離(T)之敏感度分析 54
5.5.2旅行時間成本之敏感度分析 57
5.6方案分析 59
5.6.1不同路網型態分析 59
5.6.2不同目標式之分析 61
5.6.3虛擬規劃日數量之分析 63
5.7演算法求解績效分析 65
5.8小結 67
第六章 結論與建議 68
6.1結論 68
6.2建議 69
6.3貢獻 70
參考文獻 71
附錄 78
附錄一 CPLEX Callable Library Code 78
附錄二 範例測試之輸入資料 79
附錄三 公平性模式與最小成本模式輸出結果 82
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Yan, S. and Chen, C.H., “Coordinated flight scheduling models for allied airlines,” Transportation Research Part C, Vol. 15, pp. 246-264 (2007).
Yan, S. and Chen, H. L., “A scheduling model and a solution algorithm for inter-city bus carriers,” Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 36, pp. 805-825 (2002).
Yan, S. and Shih, Y. L. “A time-space network model for work team scheduling after a major disaster,” Journal of Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 30(1), pp. 63-75 (2007).
Yan, S. and Tseng, C. H., “A passenger demand based model for airline flight scheduling and fleet routing,” Computers and Operations Research, Vol. 29, pp. 1559-1581 (2002).
Yan, S. and Young, H. F., “A decision support framework for multi-fleet routing and multi-stop flight scheduling,” Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 30, pp. 379-398 (1996).
Yan, S., Chen, S. C., and Chen, C. H., “Air cargo fleet routing and timetable setting with multiple on-time demands,” Transportation Research Part E, Vol. 42(5), pp. 409-430 (2006a).
Yan, S., Chi, C. J., and Tang, C. H., “Inter-city bus routing and timetable setting under stochastic demands,” Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 40, pp. 572-586 (2006b).
Yan, S., Lai, W. and Chen, M., “Production Scheduling and Truck Dispatching of Ready Mixed Concrete,” Transportation Research, Part E, Vol. 44, Issue 1, pp. 164-179 (2008b).
Yan, S., Tang, C. H., and Shieh, C. N., “A simulation framework for evaluating airline temporary schedule adjustments following incidents,” Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol. 28(3), pp. 189-211 (2005).
Yan, S., Tang, C.H. and Fu, T.C., “An Airline Scheduling Model and Solution Algorithms under Stochastic Demands,” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 190, pp. 22-39 (2008a).
指導教授 顏上堯(Shang-yao Yan) 審核日期 2008-7-11
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