博碩士論文 953310604 詳細資訊




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姓名 伊艾美(Amy Nasser)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 Improvement of Solid Waste Management and Design of Biogas Recovery System in Tegucigalpa, Honduras
(Improvement of Solid Waste Management and Design of Biogas Recovery System in Tegucigalpa, Honduras)
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摘要(中) 宏都拉斯共和國是一個多山且濱臨加勒比海的國家。工業發展中的宏都拉斯主
要是以農業及輕工業為主。根據2005 年的資料顯示,本國每天約產生3,239 公
噸的固體廢棄物,相當於每人每天產生0.45 公斤;其中德庫西卡爾巴
(Tegucigalpa)地區的固體廢棄物產生量為每天850 公噸(2004 年資料),且大部份
是屬於有機成分,此類有機物可以回收生質能源氣體(biogases)。宏都拉斯的固
體廢棄物產生量隨著經濟成長而每年持續在增加,本國的環境持續劣化,部分
原因是中央政府長期漠視整體性的固體廢棄物管理政策。
本研究探討宏都拉斯的都市垃圾管理政策,分析結果顯示,優先的做法應是改
善固體廢棄物之管理方案,於民眾認知的教育、鼓勵社會的參與程度及設定經
濟誘因等方面著手,其次是引進及應用廢棄物回收和處理方面的技術。為評估
廢棄物掩埋場回收生質能源氣體之可行性,本研究以德庫西卡爾巴地區規劃中
之衛生掩埋場(第二掩埋區)址為案例,本場址之廢棄物掩埋率設定為850 公噸/
天,5 年掩埋期間之廢棄物成長量為每年2%,假設甲烷氣(methane)之產生比例
為掩埋場所產生之總氣體量的50% (體積比)。應用Scholl-Canyon 掩埋場氣體推
估模式計算結果,德庫西卡爾巴衛生掩埋場(第二掩埋區)於25 年之產氣期間,
平均每年可產生約3 千萬立方公尺之甲烷氣,此產量足夠維持一座4 百萬瓦電
廠25 年所需的能源。
摘要(英) The Republic of Honduras is a mountainous country in Central America and it is
surrounded by the Caribbean Sea in its northeast land and Pacific Ocean in its
southeast shore. Honduras is considered a developing country in which the mainly
economic activities are agriculture and moderate industries. According to the
investigation data in 2005, this nation generated solid wastes in the rate of 3,239
ton/day in terms of generating 0.45 kg per person per day. In Tegucigalpa, the asdiscarded
amount of solid waste was 850 ton/day in 2004, and mostly was organic
components which can be transformed and recovered for biogases. Solid waste
generation is increasing yearly with the economic growth of the country. Ceaseless
happen of environmental damage problems was partly due to the continued disregard
of integrated solid waste management in the central government policy of Honduras.
This study reviews and analyzes the issues of municipal solid waste management in
Honduras, and found that the priority is the improvement of political policy in the
education of people, participation encouragement of societies, and economic incentive
on solid waste management programs, moreover, the induction and application of
technical solutions in waste recovery and treatment. For evaluating the feasibility of
biogas recovery from landfill of solid wastes, a case study is involved for the planning
site of sanitary landfill (Section II) with area of 25 hectares in Tegucigalpa. The
burying rate of solid waste in the landfill is set to be 850 tons/day with 2% annual
increase during 5-year operation. Methane gas is expected to be 50% (by volume) of
the totally collected gases emitted from the landfill. In the estimation with Scholl-
Canyon model, Tegucigalpa landfill (Section II) will produce around 30 millions
ii
biogases per year in 25-year duration. The collected amount of methane gas can
support a 4-MW electricity facility for 25 years.
Keywords:
Solid waste management, landfill, biogas recovery
關鍵字(中) ★ 生質能源回收
★ 固體廢棄物管理
★ 掩埋場
關鍵字(英) ★ Solid Waste Management
★ Landfill
★ Biogas Recovery
論文目次 ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... i
中文摘要...................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................ iv
TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................................. v
LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................... vii
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................... viii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Importance of Thesis Focus ................................................................................ 1
1.2 Thesis Objective ..................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Methodology ........................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Research Difficulties ............................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER TWO
THEORETICAL REVIEW ........................................................................................... 5
2.1. Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries ...................................... 5
2.2. Municipal Solid Waste and Integrated Solid Waste Management ............ 6
2.2.1. IMPORTANCE OF AN APPROPRIATE INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT (ISWM) ........................................................................................ 10
2.2.2. THE ROLE OF RELATED UNITES IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................... 11
2.3. Landfill System .................................................................................................... 13
2.3.1. LANDFILL METHODS ............................................................................. 13
2.3.2. GASES PRODUCTION AND RECOVERY ................................................... 15
CHAPTER THREE
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HONDURAS ................................................. 19
3.1. Honduras General Data ..................................................................................... 19
3.2. Solid Waste Management, Current Situation in Honduras ...................... 22
3.2.1. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ISSUES: ....................................................... 23
3.2.1.1. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ISSUES ........................................................ 24
3.2.1.2. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND LIVING CUSTOMS ISSUES ............................. 25
3.2.1.3. ECONOMIC ISSUES .............................................................................. 26
3.2.1.4. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ............................................ 26
3.2.1.5. TECHNIQUES AND OPERATIONAL ISSUES .......................................... 29
3.3. Waste Disposal in Tegucigalpa ......................................................................... 29
3.3.1. RECOLLECTION SYSTEM ........................................................................ 30
3.3.2. RECYCLING AND WASTE MINIMIZATION .............................................. 32
3.3.3. FINAL DISPOSAL .................................................................................... 34
3.4 Overview Honduras and the Kyoto protocol, Global Warming, Energy
issues: Benefits of the projects proposed. .................................................................. 36
CHAPTER FOUR
PROPOSAL DISCUSSION ........................................................................................ 45
4.1 Improvement of Solid Waste Management System in Honduras ............ 45
4.1.1. WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM ............................................................... 45
4.1.2. WASTE RECOVERY SYSTEM, MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY ........... 46
4.1.3. WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM ................................................................ 52
4.2 Design of Landfill for Municipal Solid Waste in Tegucigalpa, Honduras ........ 53
4.2.1. LANDFILL DESIGN ................................................................................. 53
4.2.2. GASES COLLECTION SYSTEM ................................................................ 61
4.2.3 ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TEGUCIGALPA ...................................... 64
4.2.4 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 85
4.2.4 BENEFIT: CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) ....................... 97
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................... 99
5.1 Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 99
5.2 Recommendations for further studies .......................................................... 101
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 103
APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................ 106
APPENDIX B ............................................................................................................ 110
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指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-Li Liao, PhD) 審核日期 2008-7-10
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