博碩士論文 953403027 詳細資訊




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姓名 劉立業(Li-yeh Liu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 ESEMS太空氣象儀器酬載
(ESEMS - Space Weather Instrumental Payload)
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摘要(中) 本論文所發展的中央大學太空氣象儀器酬載(Space Weather Instrumental Payload SWIP - Block of Central University, 簡稱BCU)透過莫斯科大學的實驗科學教育微衛星(Experimental Scientific Education Micro-Satellite, ESEMS)的國際學術合作計畫,順利與Tatiana-2衛星完成整合與測試,於2009年9月升空入軌,並且成功蒐集了軌道上的電子溫度與磁場等科學數據。
相較於2004年發射的福爾摩沙衛星二號所搭載的高空大氣閃電影像儀(Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning, 簡稱 ISUAL)雖同樣是作為電離層太空氣象的研究用途,但是BCU不僅是首顆國內自製的太空氣象酬載,也是首顆完全由大學研究團隊設計、製作與測試的酬載。BCU的主要科學儀器,包括了量測範圍500~4000°K,實測精度50°K的電子溫度探針(Electron Temperature Probe, ETP),以及量測範圍-50000nT~+50000nT、實測精度25nT的磁敏電阻式磁力計(Magneto-Resistive Magnetometer, MRM)。其中ETP是首次運作在高緯度軌道來進行電子溫度資料收集,而MRM則是首次應用於科學研究量測用途。
BCU以智慧型酬載(Smart Payload)的架構為設計目標,致力於整合衛星提供給酬載的資源,特色是與衛星的電子介面僅有單一電源以及RS-422通訊埠,但是內藏的資料處理單元(Data Processing Unit, DPU)及電源轉換模組(Power Converters)使得BCU成為可以同時管理多個儀器進行科學數據收集與紀錄的酬載平台。前述的科學儀器亦是透過DPU在軟、硬體上的無縫整合,能夠協同進行測量任務,並且同步紀錄ETP電子溫度、MRM磁場資料及艙內溫度數據,以利於後續的飛行校正與資料分析。
科學儀器在運送到莫斯科衛星工廠前,都已完成了地面校正程序。在飛行校正的部份,ETP因為獨特的設計,使得它的參考電極電壓同時可做為校正基準;而MRM則是依靠Tatiana-2衛星每分鐘取樣一次的姿態感測磁力計當做校正參考,且MRM經由這個校正步驟,除去了沿著衛星飛行方向約0.146Gauss的衛星環境殘磁。由BCU所收集到科學數據的取樣頻率為2.22Hz(換算空間解析度為3.33km),這些資料經過驗證也顯示出BCU運作正常,並且蒐集到所預期有效的電離層氣象資訊。分析之後更進一步地發現MRM在經過高緯度極光區時,量測到了順磁場電流(Field-Aligned Current, FAC)現象,並且從資料中計算出的朝下及朝上的電流值分別為2μA/m2與3μA/m2,符合一般地磁安定狀態下的觀測值。
摘要(英) The Space Weather Instrumental Payload SWIP - Block of Central University, so called the BCU, had been developed and finished the integration tests with the Tatiana-2 satellite by the Experimental Scientific Education Micro-Satellite (ESEMS) project, the international project of academic cooperation with Moscow State University (MSU). The BCU payload had been launched on September 17th, 2009, and collected the scientific data of electron temperature and magnetic field successfully.
Comparing with the earlier launched ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning) payload carried by Formosat-2 in 2004 for similar purpose of ionospheric space weather study, the BCU payload is not only the first Taiwanese scientific payload to be placed aboard a Russian satellite, but also the first scientific satellite payload designed and built entirely by the team from National Central University in Taiwan. There are two main instruments in the BCU: the Electron Temperature Probe (ETP) with a resolution of 50°K from 500°K to 4000°K, and the Magneto-Resistive Magnetometer (MRM) with a resolution of 25nT from -50000nT to +50000nT. This flight brought the ETP its first high latitude observation of electron temperature, and also led the MRM to its first space measuring mission for the purpose of scientific research.
The integration of satellite provided resource budget is engaged in design of the BCU for the objective of smart payload architecture. Therefore, the BCU payload platform is capable of parallel managing several instruments to collect and record scientific data with the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and power converters inside, and only interfacing satellite with one pair of power source line and one set of RS-422 communication channel. As a good example, the ETP and the MRM are seamlessly integrated by the DPU both in hardware and software, and well-coordinated to carry out the mission of measuring the electron temperature and magnetic field data synchronously. The temperature inside the BCU chassis is also recorded for convenience of in-flight calibration and data analysis.
The pre-flight calibrations had been done before the BCU was shipped to satellite factory in MSU. The electric potential of ETP’s reference electrode could be used as the source of in-flight calibration due to the special structure of ETP. The magnetometer of Tatiana-2 satellite with a sampling period of 1 minute could be used as a reference magnetic field of MRM’s in-flight calibration, and the environmental bias field of 0.146Gauss has been calibrated through this process. The in-flight data acquired by the BCU has a sampling rate of 2.22Hz which is equivalent to a spatial resolution of 3.33km. These data proof that all sensing units and the payload-spacecraft interfaces of the BCU system works well and collects good quality information of space weather as expected. Moreover, the MRM data revealed the existence of field aligned currents in the ionosphere. In the event presented, the current density derived from our magnetic field measurements are about 2μA/m2 and 3μA/m2, respectively, for downward and upward directions, which are comparable to those typically observed at auroral latitudes during quiet geomagnetic condition.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電子溫度計
★ 磁力計
★ 電離層
★ 科學酬載
關鍵字(英) ★ ESEMS
★ Tatiana-2
★ Ionosphere
★ BCU
★ ETP
★ MRM
論文目次 論文摘要 I
ABSTRACT(英文版摘要) III
致謝 VI
目錄 VII
圖目 XI
表目 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.2.1 世界電離層氣象觀測歷史回顧 3
1.2.2 台灣的電離層氣象觀測歷史回顧 5
1.2.3 台灣太空觀測酬載技術發展回顧 6
1.3 研究構想 7
1.4 論文章節 10
第二章 理論及技術基礎 11
2.1 酬載儀器運作原理 11
2.1.1 磁力計原理 11
2.1.2 電子溫度探針原理 15
2.1.3 電子能譜儀原理 19
2.2 近地太空磁場基礎 22
2.2.1 地球磁場與其模型 22
2.2.2 磁層常見座標系統:MLAT/MLON、ILAT、SLT/MLT 24
2.2.3 地理經緯度轉換為磁經緯度 26
2.2.4 電離層順磁場電流(Field Aligned Current)現象 27
2.3 衛星座標系及其轉換 29
2.3.1 衛星常見座標系統:RPY、ECI、ECEF、ENU、LLA 29
2.3.2 由RPY轉為ECI的座標轉換 30
2.3.3 由ECI轉為ECEF的座標轉換 30
2.3.4 由ECEF轉為ENU的座標轉換 31
2.3.5 衛星運行的軌道參數 32
第三章 系統設計 37
3.1 系統功能方塊 37
3.1.1 整體酬載系統 38
3.1.2 MRM次系統 38
3.1.3 ETP次系統 39
3.1.4 酬載主控電腦系統 40
3.1.5 電源次系統 41
3.1.6 地面測試輔助系統 42
3.2 機構硬體設計 43
3.3 電路硬體設計 45
3.3.1 酬載儀器運作特性 45
3.3.2 通訊介面 46
3.3.3 韌體更新介面 46
3.4 系統時序控制及程式風格 48
3.4.1 酬載運行順序最佳化 48
3.4.2 資料緩衝與通訊下傳 51
3.4.3 指令與控制 52
3.4.4 資料型態 53
3.4.5 記憶體空間 54
3.5 磁力計校正分析演算法推導 55
3.5.1 MRM地面校正 55
3.5.2 MRM飛行校正 58
3.5.3 數據分析方法 58
3.6 工程開發驗證流程 63
3.6.1 工程開發規劃 63
3.6.2 環境及負載測試 65
3.6.3 儀器校正與其他 66
第四章 實驗數據分析與討論 68
4.1 實驗方法及數據分析 68
4.1.1 MRM地面校正實驗步驟 68
4.1.2 ETP地面校正實驗步驟 69
4.1.3飛行實驗數據格式 70
4.1.4飛行實驗數據後處理 74
4.2數據處理相關軟體工具 76
4.3 實驗數據 79
4.3.1 地面測試數據 79
4.3.2 飛行測試數據 83
第五章 結論 88
參考文獻 92
附錄一 飛行數據後處理程式MRM_STRAINER 99
附錄二 飛行數據後處理程式ORBIT_BINDER 102
附錄三 飛行數據後處理程式DATA_LINKER 104
附錄四 飛行數據後處理程式MRMLOADRAW 106
附錄五 飛行數據後處理程式FIXTIME 108
附錄六 飛行數據後處理程式MRMINTERP 109
附錄七 飛行數據後處理程式COORD_TRANS 110
附錄八 飛行數據後處理程式IGRF_SYNTH 111
附錄九 飛行數據後處理程式MRMFILT 111
附錄十 飛行數據後處理程式MRMPLOT 114
附錄十一 飛行數據後處理程式MRMPLOT2 115
附錄十二 飛行數據後處理程式MRMPLOT3 117
附錄十三 飛行數據後處理程式-座標轉換工具集 120
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指導教授 江士標(Shyh-biau Jiang) 審核日期 2012-1-31
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