博碩士論文 954206016 詳細資訊


姓名 郭美均(Mei-chun Kuo)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 工業管理研究所
論文名稱 受到價格影響之保留價格分布的動態定價
(Dynamic Pricing with Price-affected Reservation Price Distribution)
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摘要(中) 本篇論文提出依個會受到價格影響的保留價格的架構,說明顧客的保留價格的分布會如何因為銷售價格的不同而改變。在這架構中的兩個參數:參數 表示產品的特性,其決定於顧客對此產品需求的程度, 值越大表示越是民生必需品,反之則越是奢侈品或是娛樂性產品;參數 表示販賣者所決定的銷售通路,影響到顧客保留價格分布被影響的速度快慢。降價或是促銷活動在市場上已經是一種越來越普遍的行銷手法,因此我們基於這個架構,希望在平常的時候用較高的價格來影響改變並且提高顧客的保留價格,以期到了降價時,較低的價格就可以吸引更多的顧客因為保留價格被提升而願意購買產品。因此我們在利益最大下,利用動態規劃的求解方法找出最佳的定價。
我們發現透過這個架構真的使得顧客的保留價格提高,增加受益。其中產品特性和銷售通路扮演著影響定價的重要因素,因此在此篇我們會特別針對這兩個參數做分析。許多消費者行為和市場上的訂價策略的現象,也將透過保留價格分布如何受到價格的影響被解釋。
摘要(英) We propose a structure of price-affected reservation price distribution to solve the pricing problem that price will influence customers’ reservation price distribution during the selling horizon. The structure is introduced to describe how the customers’ reservation price distribution changes by price at each selling period. Two important parameters and will be the determinants of customers’ reservation price distribution that presents the product characteristic and presents the selling channels. Since the sales activity (promotion) is common seen in the market, we take a reverse way back to use a higher price to increase customers’ reservation price for the product in the regular selling time and hold a sales activity at the last selling period with a lower price to increase the demand of the product hoping to cover the loss caused by the higher price in the previous periods to make the total profit be maximized. The structure exists recursive relation of reservation price between two continuous selling periods, and the prices are determined dynamically.
We use the single-cycle model to describe the markdown problem. Three models are then developed to show how the prices change when a markdown is considered. Many observations will be helpful to explain the customers purchasing behaviors and the selling phenomena in market. Product characteristics and the selling strategy will be the important factors in the structure while sellers decide the prices to achieve the profit maximization.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is not only to solve a markdown problem but also to observe customers’ reservation price distribution changes with the prices we decide to sell. Sensitivity analysis of parameters and the length of the selling horizon influences customers’ reservation price distribution and profit will be conducted.
關鍵字(中) ★ 保留價格
★ 動態規劃
★ 降價
關鍵字(英) ★ Markdown
★ Reservation price
★ Dynamic pricing
論文目次 Abstract I
1. Introduction 4
2. Literature review 6
2.1. Markdown issues 6
2.2. Dynamic pricing 7
2.3. Reservation price 8
3. Price-affected reservation price distribution 9
3.1. Price-affected reservation price distribution 9
3.2. Product characteristics – Parameter 14
3.3. Selling channels - Parameter 15
3.4. Profit optimization of price based on price-affected reservation price distribution 19
4. Assumptions and Formulations 24
4.1. Markdown pricing problem 25
4.1.1. Model 1 – Basic model without markdown 26
4.1.2 Model 2 – Single markdown 26
4.1.3 Model 3 – Multiple markdowns 27
4.2. Numerical examples 28
5. Sensitivity Analysis 30
5.1. Sensitivity Analysis of parameter 30
5.2. Sensitivity Analysis of selling horizon for average profit 31
5.3. Sensitivity analysis of parameter A and manufacturing cost 34
6. Summary and conclusion 38
7. Future research 40
References 42
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2.Bitran, G., Mondschein, S. (1997), “Periodic pricing of seasonal products in retailing”, Management Science, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 64-79
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4.Elmaghraby, W., Keskinocak, P. (2003), “Dynamic pricing in the presence of inventory considerations: research overview, current practices, and future directions”, Management Science, Vol. 49, No. 10, pp. 1287-1309.
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6.Gupta, D., A. V. Hill, Bouzdine-Chameeva , T. (2006), “A pricing model for clearing end-of-season retail inventory”, European Journal of Operational Research , Vol. 170, pp. 518-549.
7.Houthakker, H. S. (1950), “Revealed preference and reservation price distribution function”, Ecnomica, New Series, Vol. 17, No.66, pp. 159-174
8.Hugonnier, J., Kramkov D., Schachermayer, W. (2005), “On reservation price distribution-based pricing of contingent claims in incomplete markets”, Mathematical Finance, Vol.15, No.2, pp.203-212.
9.Lazear, E. P. (1986), “Retail pricing and clearance sales”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 14-32.
10. Mantrala, M. K. (1994), “An implementable approach for optimizing department store markdown decisions”, Retailing Review, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. RR1-RR6.
11. Pashigian, B. P., Bowen, B. (1991), “Why are products sold on sale? Explanations of pricing regularities”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 106, No. 4, pp. 1015-1038.
指導教授 曾富祥(Fu-Shiang Tseng) 審核日期 2008-6-25
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