博碩士論文 955201071 詳細資訊


姓名 許神賢(Shen-Sian Syu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 具避障與自動搬運功能之天車系統
(The overhead crane system with object-transporting and obstacle-avoiding)
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摘要(中) 本論文是針對天車系統(Overhead Crane System)設計模糊控制器,用以消除天車運作過程中所造成的負載擺盪及快速定位,並且利用攝影機觀察環境,來達成搬運物體和閃避障礙物的功能。天車系統被廣泛地使用在各工業領域中,在搬運物體時,操作者必需有足夠的經驗並且小心操作,避免物體在移動時產生大角度的擺盪,且要謹慎閃避移動路線上的障礙物。由於天車系統本身具有欠驅動(Underactuated)、複雜之非線性、難以模型化之參數誤差的特性,容易造成控制之精確度與穩定性不足。所以本論文根據操作者的經驗,不需要系統建模,利用模糊理論,設計模糊控制器,讓天車系統能在 三軸快速定位,以及消除負載擺盪。同時,本論文還將進行傳統控制之設計與實驗,用以比較模糊控制與傳統控制在天車控制上之性能優劣。除此之外,我們在天車系統上加了一個攝影機,讓天車系統利用攝影機所得到的視覺影像,找到搬運物體或障礙物,使得天車能自行搬運物體到使用者所指定的目標位置,即使移動路線上可能遭遇障礙物,天車也能閃避障礙物而到達目標位置。本論文作品整合這些技術和功能,實驗結果成功地展現出天車系統控制的效能與準確性。
摘要(英) In this thesis, we design fuzzy controls to achieve anti-swing and position control for overhead cranes. Furthermore, with the aids of camera, the crane also accomplishes the works of object-transporting and obstacle-avoiding. It is known that overhead cranes are widely used in factories and docks. Experienced operators operate the crane fast and carefully without load swing and obstacles collision. Since the overhead crane system is underactuated and highly nonlinear, it is difficult to control by a systematic process. Moreover, it is hard to be modeled exactly, the control performance and stability are usually deteriorated by the modeling errors. This thesis designs fuzzy controllers to achieve three-dimensional position control and anti-swing control for the crane without its model. Moreover, a camera is installed above the crane to recognize the positions of objects and obstacles such that the crane system can transport objects from the initial position to the assigned destination and avoid the obstacles automatically. From the experimental results, the proposed fuzzy controller has better control performance than the conventional controller does. Furthermore, the goals of object- transporting and obstacle-avoiding are also achieved accurately.
關鍵字(中) ★ 避障
★ 欠驅動
★ 影像
★ 天車
★ 模糊控制
關鍵字(英) ★ crane
★ fuzzy control
★ avoiding-obstacle
★ underactuated
★ image
論文目次 摘要..........I
Abstract..........II
致謝..........III
目錄..........IV
圖目錄..........VI
表目錄..........IX
第一章 緒論..........1
1.1 前言..........1
1.2 文獻回顧..........1
1.3 研究動機與目的..........3
1.4 報告架構..........4
第二章 天車系統架構..........5
2.1 天車系統架構..........5
2.1.1 天車機構..........5
2.1.2 個人電腦..........8
2.1.3 馬達控制卡..........8
2.1.4 網路攝影機..........8
2.2 欠驅動系統特性..........9
2.3 人機介面..........10
第三章 控制器的設計..........12
3.1 天車控制系統描述..........12
3.2 模糊控制器..........14
3.3 P控制器..........24
3.4 模糊P控制器..........26
3.5 實驗結果與討論..........28
3.5.1 實驗一:短距離移動控制..........29
3.5.2 實驗二:長距離移動控制..........36
3.5.3 實驗三:初始狀態受干擾..........42
3.5.4 實驗四:繩索長度變動之移動控制..........49
3.5.5 實驗結果分析..........55
第四章 天車搬運及避障..........56
4.1 簡介..........56
4.2 影像處理..........56
4.2.1 色彩空間模型..........57
4.2.2 背景相減..........58
4.2.3 連通物件法..........59
4.2.4 邊緣偵測..........60
4.2.5 利用邊緣來切割不同面..........61
4.2.6 侵蝕、膨脹..........62
4.2.7 物體實際的位置..........63
4.3 天車搬運系統..........66
4.4 天車避障系統..........68
4.4.1 轉折點之設計..........69
4.4.2 避障時的擺盪修正..........73
4.5 實驗結果與討論..........74
4.5.1 實驗一:天車之搬運控制..........74
4.5.2 實驗二:天車之避障控制..........77
4.5.3 實驗結果分析..........81
第五章 結論..........82
5.1 結論..........82
5.2 未來展望..........82
參考文獻..........84
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指導教授 王文俊(Wen-June Wang) 審核日期 2008-6-24
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