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姓名 丁錡樺(Chi-hua Ting)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 水文與海洋科學研究所
論文名稱 呂宋海峽內潮及其強化生地化通量之數值研究
(Numerical study of internal tides in the Luzon Strait and its influence on biogeochemical fluxes)
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摘要(中) 南海是一個半封閉的海域,由水深達5000-6000 m的中央海盆及水深淺於200 m的廣大陸棚區所組成。根據「亞洲聲學實驗」(ASIAEX) 2001年在南海的調查,發現南海北部有相當顯著的內潮(斜壓潮)活動。而呂宋海峽是連接南海與太平洋的主要通道,內部有呂宋島弧與恆春海脊兩座海檻地形,當正壓潮流流經此處會因為與海脊的交互作用激發強烈的斜壓潮波。本研究進一步利用三維潮汐模式耦合生地化模式去研究激發自呂宋海峽之內潮的特性與能量以及對南海生地化參數的影響。模式初始場則採用南海時間序列站(SEATS)自1999至2003年間的溫鹽深歷史資料所分析得到的季節性溫、鹽剖面。
數值實驗結果顯示季節性的水文結構差異並未造成斜壓潮能量有重要的改變,但是斜壓潮能量在大小潮間的變異則相當明顯,而全、半日斜壓潮的能量也有明顯的差異。估算正壓能量轉換成斜壓能量的百分率,半日斜壓潮約20%,全日斜壓潮30%,而混合型斜壓潮在大小潮期間分別為30%與23%。另外,研究結果尚指出冬夏兩季的斜壓潮能量雖然沒有重要的差異,但是夏季斜壓潮的水平相速度及水平群速度皆比冬季來的快。
生地化方面的模擬結果則顯現內潮遇上類似東沙島這類陡變的地形會有比較強的混合作用進而將深海的營養鹽向上傳輸至有光層中並提升生產力。模式結果指出內潮引起的營養鹽傳輸可支持整個南海初級生產力(410 mgC/m2-day)的3.5-6.6%。
摘要(英) The South China Sea (SCS) is a semienclosed basin with depth of 5000-6000 m in the central basin and less than 200 m over most of peripheral shelves. Observations obtained in the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) 2001 revealed vigorous internal tides in the northern SCS. The Luzon Strait is primary deep passage connecting South China Sea (SCS) to the northwest Pacific Ocean and blocked by two meridional ridges at depths. Barotropic tides propagate predominantly westward from the Pacific Ocean, impinge on two meridional ridges, and generate vigorous internal tides. A three-dimensional tide model coupled with a biogeochemical model is used to study the characteristics and energetic of internal tides excited in the Luzon Strait and their influence on the biogeochemical parameters in SCS. Historical CTD data (1999-2003) collected at the South East Asia Time-Serious (SEATS) station are analyzed to obtain the seasonal profiles of temperature and salinity as the initial fields of the model.
Results derives from numerical experiments indicate that diurnal (O1 , K1) and semidiurnal (M2 , S2) tides have a comparable energy flux emanating from the Luzon Strait. The barotropic to baroclinic energy concersion rate reaches 30% for diurnal tides and 20% for semidiurnal tides. There appears no significant seasonal variation of the baroclinic tidal energy flux. Sprin-neap variations are strong. Nearly 30% and 23% of barotropic energy are transferred to baroclinic tides during spring and neap tide. Although there is no significant seasonal variation of energetics, the horizontal phase speed and group speed of baroclnic tide is faster in summer than in winter.
In the SCS, the interaction of internal tide with abruptly changed topography like the Dongsha Plateau may enhance mixing and bring nutrients to sunlit upper layers of the ocean, fueling biological growth. The model results show that the nutrient transport induced by internal tide could support 3.5-6.6% of the daily primary productivity which is 410mgC/m2-day in the SCS.
關鍵字(中) ★ 初級生產力
★ 數值模式
★ 內潮
關鍵字(英) ★ primary productivity
★ numerical model
★ internal tide
論文目次 中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
致謝 IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 X
第一章 序論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-1-1 內波介紹 1
1-1-2 南海海域之地理水文氣候 3
1-1-3 海洋生地化 5
1-2 文獻回顧 7
1-3 研究目的與動機 11
第二章 南海北部水文剖面分析 13
2-1 資料來源 13
2-1-1 南海時間序列研究背景 13
2-1-2 資料處理 14
2-2 南海季節性躍層 17
2-2-1 躍層選取方法 17
2-2-1-1 濾波方法 18
2-2-2 南海躍層基本性質 22
2-2-3 南海躍層的季節性探討 23
2-3 浮力頻率的垂直結構 26
第三章 數值模式 28
3-1 數值模式簡介 28
3-2 模式基本描述 29
3-2-1 基本控制方程式 29
3-2-2 紊流閉合模式 31
3-2-3 σ座標轉換 34
3-2-4 網格配置 36
3-2-5 垂向邊界條件 37
3-2-6 模式結構 38
3-2-7 模式穩定條件模式穩定條件 41
3-3 三維潮汐模式之建構 42
3-3-1 模式地形 42
3-3-2 模式驅動 44
3-3-3 側邊界條件及相關設定 45
3-4 生地化模式 46
3-4-1 NPZD生地化模式描述 46
3-4-2 物理與生地化模式之耦合 52
第四章 數值實驗結果及討論 53
4-1 模式校驗 53
4-1-1 等潮位圖 53
4-1-2 潮流橢圓 55
4-2 數值實驗設計 57
4-3 內潮物理部分模擬結果 59
4-3-1 全日(O1+K1)、半日(M2+S2)斜壓潮之季節性探討-實驗
I、II 59
4-3-1-1 一般特性 60
4-3-1-2 能量 73
4-3-2 混合(O1+K1+M2+S2)斜壓潮之季節與大小潮的能量差異-
實驗III 81
4-4 內潮生地化部分模擬結果 87
4-4-1 南海表層海水葉綠素的分佈 87
4-4-2 內潮對生地化的影響 91
4-4-2-1 內潮在淺海與深海造成的生地化反應之比較 92
4-4-2-2 內潮對南海初級生產力的貢獻 94
第五章 結論與建議 97
中文參考文獻 100
英文參考文獻 101
附錄A 日循環光照 108
附錄B 生地化模式初始場 111
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Yanagi, T., and T. Takao (1998), “A nemerical simulation of tides and tidal currents in the South China Sea”, Acta Oceanogr. Taiwan., 37(1), pp. 17-29.
指導教授 劉康克、詹森
(Kon-kee Liu、Sen Jan)
審核日期 2008-7-23
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