博碩士論文 961205601 詳細資訊


姓名 席玄遠(Abraham Wiliam)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 歷史研究所
論文名稱
(Modern Reform of Indonesian Islamic Education, the Case of Pesantren Suryalaya in West Java)
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摘要(中) 中文摘要
東南亞地區的伊斯蘭化起始於滿者伯夷(Majapahit)的印度教王國時期,並使印尼成為世界上最大的穆斯林國家,其中伊斯蘭教育機構Pesantren為執行伊斯蘭化的媒介之一。印尼地區的伊斯蘭經學院傳統已有相當長的歷史,一直到二十世紀中葉後才有重大的改革。本論文試圖探討爪哇地區伊斯蘭經學院歷經荷蘭殖民時期世俗化的衝擊,並在獨立後依據伊斯蘭在印尼發展之走向做的轉變。爪哇地區的經學院相當多,主要分為傳統的蘇非修道中心為基礎的Pesantren以及受到現代伊斯蘭改革思想所影響之新式的經學院(Madrasah)。傳統的經學院於二十世紀的轉變乃一相當直得探討的現象,本論文擬就西爪哇Tasikmalaya地區之Suryalaya的經學院為例去理解此一現象。Pesantren Suryalaya已有百年以上歷史,其轉型是否成功,可視為印尼傳統伊斯蘭教育的指標。本論文除了探討經學院結構的轉變之外,亦探討傳統蘇非道團在此轉變中所扮演的角色,以及其儀式教義的調適。簡言之,本論文之研究希望能提出印尼蘇非修道中心結合傳統伊斯蘭教育之經學院的現代改變。本論文討論內容追溯至Sufi導師們推廣伊斯蘭的時期。Sufi導師不只是Pesantren的老師,也在伊斯蘭王國佔有權位。印尼被荷蘭殖民前,Pesantren是印尼當地人民唯一的教育機構;被殖民後,殖民者驅離有絕對權力的Pesantren導師。此後被驅離的導師自行在偏遠地區建立他們的學校,遠離大城市的荷蘭行政機關;而荷蘭殖民政府則設立世俗性學校(Sekolah),自此開始二分法的教育方式,即Sekolah的學生不學與伊斯蘭相關的知識,而Pesantren的學生,只學宗教傳統知識,此時的Pesantren仍屬於傳統主義團體。之後穆斯林現代主義團體Muhamadiyyah發起教育改革,整合現代非宗教性和傳統伊斯蘭教教育。印尼獨立後建立宗教部,是為了管理伊斯蘭教教育,使得伊斯蘭教和非宗教性學校的二元化教育的情勢仍維持下去。Suharto政權時代建立的伊斯蘭大學 (IAIN)漸地解決二分法問題。IAIN的出現是IAILM Suryalaya建立的原因之一。以上提及的內容環環相扣,為本論文論述之主題。
關鍵詞: 印尼,經學院,爪哇,伊斯蘭教育
摘要(英) Abstract
Islamization, beginning in the period of the Hindu Majapahit, made Indonesia the biggest Muslim country in the world. One of the agents of Islamisation is the traditional Islamic education institution called pesantren. The long history of pesantren in Indonesia, especially in Java, shows the connection between Nasantra and the Islamic Central Lands. During the Dutch colonial period, education institution was secularized by setting up the European style sekolah. The impletation of the secular education forced pesantren move and develop in the rual areas. Nevertheless Islamic traditions were kept going on through pesantren education.
After the independence, pesantren institution was again forced to transform into a modern madrasah system, which was initiated by Muhammadiyyah’s reform. Later the reform was adopted by Nadathul Ulama (NU) to launch new development in pesantren education. Inspite of this, some traditional pesantrens which are affiliated with certain Sufi tariqahs still maintain traditional characteristics. The most well-known of them is the Pesantren Suryalaya in Tasikmalaya, West Java. This research aims to study the transformation of the Pesantren Suryalaya, to examine how it follows up the national educational policy and keeps up with educational trends in the Islamic Central Lands. Apart from that, this research also studies how Sufi teachings and rituals that play important role in the transformation of pesantren educatrional reform.
Keywords: Indonesia, Java, Madrasah, Pesantren, Suryalaya, Islam, education
關鍵字(中) ★ 伊斯蘭教育
★ 印尼
★ 經學院
★ 爪哇
關鍵字(英) ★ Islam
★ Suryalaya
★ Pesantren
★ Madrasah
★ Java
★ Indonesia
★ education
論文目次 Chinese Abstract ...................................................................................... i
English Abstract ........................................................................................ ii
Aknolegement ............................................................................................. iii
Contents ..................................................................................................... v
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Motive and Purpose ...................................................................... 1
1.2 Review of the Relevant Studies .................................................................... 2
1.3 Method of Research .................................................................................... 6
1.4 Expected Contribution of the Thesis .............................................................. 7
Chapter 2 The Impact of Colonialism on Islamic Education
2.1 Islamic Education in the Traditional Setting .................................................. 8
2.1.1 How and When Islam Entered Nusantara ................................................... 8
2.1.2 Early Islamic Educational Institution in the Sultanate Period ......................... 12
2.2 Educational Institution in the Dutch Colonial Era ............................................ 16
2.3 Concluding Remarks .................................................................................. 33
Chapter 3 Islamic Education after the Independence
3.1 Islamo-political History prior to the Independence .......................................... 36
3.2 Islamic Education System in the Old Order Era ............................................ 42
3.3 Islamic Education Reform in the New Order Era ............................................. 46
3.4 Concluding Remarks .................................................................................. 49
Chapter 4 Tariqah Pesantren Suryalaya before the New Order Era
4.1 Tasawwuf and Tariqah ................................................................................ 52
4.2 Qadiriyyah and Naqshbandiyyah Tariqahs ..................................................... 59
4.3 Tariqah Qadiriyyah-wa-Naqshbandiyyah (TQN) ............................................. 62
4.4 The Rituals and Teachings of TQN .............................................................. 62
4.5 TQN’s Ideology on Education .................................................................... 70
4.6 The Early Establishment of Pesantren Suryalaya ............................................ 71
4.7 Concluding Remarks ................................................................................. 77
Chapter 5 Modernization of Education in Pesantren Suryalaya
5.1 Pesantren Suryalaya under the Leadership of Abah Anom ................................ 78
5.2 Transformation of Educational System in Pesantren Suryalaya ......................... 80
5.3 The New Direction of Islamic Education in Pesantren Suryalaya ....................... 84
5.4 Concluding Remarks .................................................................................. 92
Chapter 6 Conclusion ............................................................................ 94
Reference .................................................................................................. 100
Appendix .................................................................................................... 107
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指導教授 林長寬、鄭誠政
(Nabil C-K Lin、Cheng C. Ch'eng)
審核日期 2010-7-20
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