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姓名 周家如(Chia-Ju Chou)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 左右半腦如何運用脈絡訊息:以分類詞與名詞意義整合中限定性與預測性效果來探討
(The constraining and cloze probability effects on Chinese classifier-noun agreement in two hemispheres)
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摘要(中) 近年來許多研究討論脈絡限定性(contextual constraint)的強度以及目標詞的可預測性是如何影響閱讀理解的過程,此外Wlotko and Federmeier(2007)的研究也提出左右半腦運用或處理脈絡訊息的模式不同也影響閱讀理解的結果。然而過去研究定義脈絡限定性的效果都與名詞的克漏字機率(cloze probability)共變,所以難以區分實驗所得到的效果是來自於脈絡限定性或是克漏字機率。本研究藉由中文分類詞與可接名詞的語意關係,重新探討脈絡限定性與目標詞可預測性對閱讀理解的影響。研究首先建立分類詞的資料庫,以資料庫中連接廣度為分類詞限定性強度的指標,解決與克漏字共變的問題。實驗一旨在探討脈絡限定性如何改變概念整合的情況。實驗結果發現,N400的部分得到強限定性的情境下,可預測性低的目標詞引發較負的N400,顯示限定性會改變目標詞語意整合的難易度的結果。實驗二進一步探討左右半腦如何運用脈絡訊息進行語意整合。結果支持Wlotko and Federmeier(2007)對於左右腦處理模式的假設。認為左腦的處理模式是一種預測性的歷程(predictive process),左腦會先行運用脈絡訊息形成的預期,因此在早期P200的詞彙處理階段與N400的地方得到限定性對語意整合的難易度的影響。而右腦的處理則是一種整合性的歷程(integrative process),主要處理詞彙的關聯性,實驗結果得到N400的波形主要反應目標詞可預測性的影響,不受限定性影響。綜合實驗結果,脈絡限定性的強弱會影響詞彙處理的效能,而左右半腦會以不同的處理模式運用脈絡訊息,可說語言理解過程是左右半腦共同合作的結果。
摘要(英) Although a large body of literature has demonstrated that the context affects word processing. Moreover, studies have been showed the cerebral hemispheres are differentially sensitive to sentence-level information, which implicate for normal language processing. Previous studies examined the joint effects of sentential constraint and expectancy (cloze probability) on the ERP responses to words and suggested that there were multiple effects in different processing stages. Nevertheless, cloze probability under strongly and weakly constraining context is not well matched in those studies, which makes the interaction between context and cloze probability unexplainable. The current study aims to reexamine this issue by using the characteristics of Chinese classifier-noun agreement. First, we established a database for 180 Chinese classifiers. Each of them was rated according to their familiarity, strength of constraint (the number of nouns that can be followed by a specific classifier) and the cloze probability for those following nouns. In the first ERP experiment, each participant will perceive a highly expected (high cloze probability), an unexpected (low cloze probability), or an anomalous noun followed by either a strongly constrained or weakly constrained classifiers. The data showed the interaction of contextual constraint and cloze probability in N400. The critical comparison between unexpected nouns of low cloze probability and anomalous completions showed different patterns in strongly and weakly constraining context. The result is interpreted as that, the strongly constrained context yields a narrower scope of activation than weakly constrained context does. The difference in the responses to them might be a cause of the presence of a preferred competitor in the strong constraint condition. Thus, additional resources might be needed to override or suppress a strong prediction for a different word or concept. In the second experiment, the targets were presented at two visual fields separately. The result support the suggestion that only the left hemisphere (LH) makes predictions about upcoming items. Targets in strongly constrained classifier elicited larger P2s, and N400 responses the interaction between constraint and cloze probability. In contract, the right (RH) processes words in a more integrative fashion. N400 showed the typical pattern of amplitudes graded by cloze probability without the influence from constraint. These data point out the multiple effects and highlight the importance of hemispheric asymmetries and their implications for normal language processing.
關鍵字(中) ★ 事件相關電位
★ 左右半腦
★ 分類詞
★ 脈絡限定性
★ 克漏字機率
關鍵字(英) ★ ERPs
★ hemispheric asymmetries
★ Chinese classifier-noun agreement
★ Cloze probability
★ Constraint
論文目次 中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致 謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 viii
第一章、導讀 1
第二章、脈絡限定性的效果 4
第三章、左右腦語意處理的差異 12
3-1 左右腦的語意處理模式 14
3-2 左右腦的語意處理模式:以閱讀句子的情況來說 17
第四章、中文分類詞 24
4-1 中文分類詞的特性 24
4-2 分類詞的限定性 25
第五章、分類詞資料的建立 27
5-1 受試者 27
5-2 實驗材料 27
5-3 問卷編制與程序 27
5-4 指標之間的關聯性 28
第六章、實驗一 30
6-1 研究目的 30
6-2 研究方法 31
6-2-1 實驗受試者 31
6-2-2 實驗材料 32
6-2-3 實驗程序 33
6-2-4 EEG紀錄方式 34
6-3 實驗結果 35
6-3-1 行為實驗結果 35
6-3-2 ERP實驗結果 36
6-4 討論 44
第七章、實驗二 47
7-1 研究目的 47
7-2 研究方法 48
7-2-1 實驗受試者 48
7-2-2 實驗材料 48
7-2-3 實驗程序 49
7-2-4 EEG記錄方式 50
7-3 實驗結果 50
7-3-1 行為實驗結果 50
7-3-2 ERP實驗結果 52
7-4 討論 63
第八章、綜合討論 66
結論 69
未來研究方向 70
參考文獻 71
附錄 75
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指導教授 李佳穎(Chia-ying Lee) 審核日期 2009-7-22
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