博碩士論文 962403007 詳細資訊




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姓名 鍾武勳(Wu-Hsun Chung)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學學系
論文名稱
(Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the rapid determination of selected emerging contaminants – method optimization and applications)
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摘要(中) 一般的萃取方法是耗時、成本較高、對生態不友善,並且有殘留等問題。本論文所提出的分散微固相萃取法 (DmSPE) 結合溶劑脫附或熱脫附技術可改善這些缺點,並且藉由實驗設計進行萃取參數的最佳化。
本文分為三個部分:在第一個部分,開發及驗證最佳化方法檢測水樣中七個人造麝香的目標待測物。此方法包含DmSPE加上超音波輔助溶劑脫附 (UASD),並以氣相層析質譜儀 (GC-MS) 進行檢測。水樣中目標待測物的萃取效率及UASD的影響因子是由Box-Behnken design的實驗設計法進行最佳化。最佳萃取條件是在50毫升的水樣中浸入10.1毫克的矽膠基質鍵結十八烷基 (C18) 吸附劑,經過10.4分鐘的劇烈搖盪萃取後,在過濾器上收集及乾燥吸附劑,再以200 μL的正己烷作為脫附溶劑,經過38秒的超音波脫附目標待測物。從城市污水處理廠 (MWTP) 的排放水及河流水樣的初步檢測顯示galaxolide (HHCB) 和tonalide (AHTN) 是兩個最常被檢測到的人造麝香化合物,它們被測到的濃度範圍:污水水樣為88 ~ 690 ng/L,河流水樣為5 ~ 320 ng/L。
在第二部分,是開發一個簡單,快速,無溶劑的檢測方法,將DmSPE結合直接熱脫附 (TD)-GC-MS技術,用於檢測水樣中五個目標麝香待測物。水樣中目標麝香待測物萃取的效率及GC注射埠中熱脫附的條件,其影響的參數以中心合成設計 (CCD) 法進行最佳化,最佳萃取條件包含浸入3.2毫克的C18吸附劑到10毫升的水樣中,劇烈搖盪萃取1.0分鐘之後,在過濾器上收集並乾燥吸附劑。吸附劑再被轉移到一個微試管內,並將其直接插入到GC程式升溫注射器中,而所萃取的目標麝香待測物在337 °C的GC的注射埠中進行熱脫附3.8分鐘。以標準添加法初步進行河流水樣分析,結果顯示HHCB和AHTN的測定濃度範圍為11 ~ 140 ng/L。
最後,我們更進一步以無溶劑法快速檢測水樣中含有OH-官能基的六個二苯甲酮系的紫外光防曬劑,此法包含DmSPE結合同時矽烷衍生及熱脫附 (SSTD)-GC-MS技術。先以Plackett-Burman設計法篩選主要影響因子,選出的主要因子再以CCD作為最佳化探討,而最佳實驗條件包括浸入1.5毫克的Oasis HLB吸附劑到10毫升的水樣中,劇烈搖盪1分鐘後,吸附劑轉移到微試管中,先在122 °C下乾燥3.5分鐘,再加入2 µL BSTFA矽烷化試劑。其中SSTD的程序是將注射埠的溫度保持在70 °C持續2.5分鐘進行衍生化反應,然後溫度迅速增加到340 °C持續5.7分鐘,以利TMS衍生物熱脫附進入GC。以標準添加法初步檢測MWTP的排放水及河流水樣,顯示2-羥基-4-甲氧基二苯甲酮 (BP-3) 是最常被檢測到的二苯甲酮系UV防曬劑,其檢測到的濃度範圍為5.1 ~ 39.7 ng/L。
本論文的結果顯示DmSPE 結合溶劑或熱脫附技術可以滿足檢測的驗證標準,精確檢測水樣中微量的新興汙染物,此技術是簡單,低成本,有效率,對生態友善的檢測方法。在未來,這些方法也可進一步應用在其他領域,例如:食品,飲料,化妝品中新興汙染物的檢測。
摘要(英) The general developed microextraction methods were time-consuming, higher cost, eco-unfriendly, and carryover problems. A dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (DmSPE) coupled solvent/thermal desorption techinque was able to improve these disadvantages, and the parameters were optimized by experimental design, which was proposed by this thesis.
This thesis was divided into three parts: the first part developed and validated an optimized method for the determination of seven synthetic target musks in water samples. The method involves a DmSPE plus ultrasound-assisted solvent desorption (UASD) prior to their determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water samples and UASD were optimized by a Box-Behnken design (BBD) method. The optimal extraction conditions involved immersing 10.1 mg of a octadecyl (C18) bonded silica adsorbent in a 50 mL water sample. After 10.4 min of extraction by vigorously shaking, the adsorbent was collected and dried on a filter, and the target musks were desorbed by ultrasound for 38 sec with n-hexane (200 μL) as the desorption solvent. A preliminary analysis of the effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) and river water samples revealed that galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the two most commonly detected synthetic musks; their concentration were determined to range from 88 to 690 ng/L for effluent samples, and 5 to 320 ng/L for river water samples.
In the second part, a simple, rapid, and solvent-free method involves the use of DmSPE coupled with direct thermal desorption (TD) -GC-MS for the analysis of five target musks in water samples. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water sample and the thermal desorption conditions in the GC injection-port were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) method. The optimal extraction conditions involved immersing 3.2 mg of a C18 adsorbent in a 10 mL water sample. After extraction by vigorously shaking for 1.0 min, the adsorbents were collected and dried on a filter. The adsorbents were transferred to a micro-vial, which was directly inserted into GC temperature programmed injector, and the extracted target analytes were then thermally desorbed in the GC injection port at 337 °C for 3.8 min. Using a standard addition method, a preliminary analysis of the river water samples revealed that the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were determined to in the range from 11 to 140 ng/L.
Finally, a solvent-free method involves the use of DmSPE followed by the simultaneous silylation and thermal desorption (SSTD) -GC-MS for the rapid analysis of six benzophenone-type UV absorbers in water samples. A Plackett-Burman design was used for screening and a CCD for optimizing the major factors was applied. The optimal experimental conditions involved immersing 1.5 mg of the Oasis HLB adsorbent in a 10 mL portion of water sample. After vigorous shaking for 1 min, the adsorbents were transferred to a micro-vial, and were dried at 122 °C for 3.5 min, after cooling, 2 μL of the BSTFA silylating reagent was added. For SSTD, the injection-port temperature was held at 70 °C for 2.5 min for derivatization, and the temperature was then rapidly increased to 340 °C to allow the thermal desorption of the TMS-derivatives into the GC for 5.7 min. Using a standard addition method, a preliminary analysis of the MWTP effluent and river water samples revealed that 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) was the most common benzophenone-type UV absorber present. The concentrations of BP-3 ranged from 5.1 to 39.7 ng/L.
The preliminary results of this dissertation reveals that these methods can satisfy analytical validation criteria, allow precise measurement of the trace levels of emerging contaminants in aqueous samples, and they are simple, low cost, effective, and eco-friendly method. In the future, these methods also can be further studied to apply in other fields, e.g., food, beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, etc.
關鍵字(中) ★ 人造麝香
★ 熱脫附-氣相層析質譜
★ 分散微固相萃取
★ 水分析
★ 二苯甲酮型紫外線防曬劑
關鍵字(英) ★ Synthetic musks
★ Thermal desorption–GC–MS
★ Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction
★ Water analysis
★ Benzophenone-type UV absorbers
論文目次 Abstract. I
Abstract in Chinese III
Acknowledgements. V
Table of contents. VII
List of figures. XI
List of tables XIII
Abbreviation. XV
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research background. 1
1.2 Conventional extraction methods 3
1.2.1 Liquid-liquid extraction. 3
1.2.2 Solid-phase extraction. 3
1.3 Proposed microextraction technology. 5
1.3.1 Solid-phase microextraction 5
1.3.2 Stir-bar sorptive extraction 6
1.3.3 Single-drop microextraction 7
1.3.4 Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction 9
1.3.5 Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. 10
1.4 Method used in this study. 13
1.4.1 Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction 13
1.4.2 DmSPE combined with solvent desorption 15
1.4.3 DmSPE combined with thermal desorption. 15
1.5 Introduction of target analytes 16
1.5.1 Emerging contaminants. 16
1.5.2 Synthetic musk compounds 16
1.5.2.1 Flow distribution of synthetic musk compounds 16
1.5.2.2 Toxicity of synthetic musk compounds. 17
1.5.2.3 Structures of synthetic musk compounds. 18
1.5.3 Benzophenone-type UV filters 20
VIII
1.5.3.1 Flow distribution of benzophenone-type UV filters. 20
1.5.3.2 Toxicity of benzophenone-type UV filters 20
1.5.3.3 Names and structures of benzophenone-type UV filters 21
1.6 Experimental design. 23
1.6.1 univariate experimental design 23
1.6.2 Response surface methodology 23
1.6.3 Analysis of a second-order response surface 25
1.6.4 Box-Behnken design 26
1.6.5 Central composite design. 27
1.6.6 Pareto chart from Plackett-Burman design 27
1.7 Adsorption theory. 29
1.7.1 Introduction to the studied adsorbents. 30
1.7.2 Adsorption theory 33
1.7.2.1 Langmuir adsorption isotherm. 33
1.7.2.2 BET theory 34
1.7.2.3 Barrett-Joyner-Halenda theory 36
1.8 Study objective 38
Chapter 2 Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction coupled with ultrasoundassisted
solvent desorption. 51
2.1 Introduction 51
2.2 Experimental. 53
2.2.1 Chemicals and reagents. 53
2.2.2 Sample collection. 53
2.2.3 DmSPE procedure. 54
2.2.4 GC-MS analysis. 56
2.2.5 Method evaluation. 57
2.3 Results and Discussion 58
2.3.1.1 Selection of the optimal adsorbents. 58
2.3.1.2 Selection of the optimal desorption solvent. 59
2.3.1.3 Optimization of DmSPE plus UASD procedure 60
2.3.2 Method performance and validation 66
2.3.3 Method applications 67
2.4 Summary. 72
Chapter 3 Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction coupled with thermal
desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 79
3.1 Introduction 79
3.2 Experimental Section. 81
3.2.1 Chemicals and Reagents 81
3.2.2 Sample collection. 81
3.2.3 DmSPE Procedure. 82
3.2.4 TD-GC-MS analysis 84
3.2.5 Experimental design 85
3.2.6 Method evaluation. 85
3.3 Results and Discussion 87
3.3.1 Optimization of DmSPE and TD procedure. 87
3.3.1.1 Selection of the optimal adsorbents. 88
3.3.1.2 Effect of extraction time on recovery. 89
3.3.1.3 Effect of salt and pH on recovery. 90
3.3.1.4 Central composite design (CCD) for Optimization. 90
3.3.2 Method performance and validation 95
3.3.3 Method applications 96
3.4 Summary. 102
Chapter 4 Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction coupled with simultaneous
silylation plus thermal desorption 107
4.1 Introduction 107
4.2 Experimental. 109
4.2.1 Chemicals and reagents. 109
4.2.2 Sample collection. 109
4.2.3 DmSPE following SSTD-GC-MS procedures. 110
4.2.4 Experimental design 113
4.2.5 Method evaluation. 113
4.3 Results and Discussion 115
4.3.1 Optimization of DmSPE and SSTD procedure. 115
4.3.1.1 Screening design. 116
4.3.1.2 Optimization design 121
4.3.2 Method performance and validation 126
4.3.3 Method applications 127
4.4 Summary. 132
Chapter 5 Conclusions. 139
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Chapter 2
[1] Anastassiades, M., Lehotay, S. J., Stajnbaher, D., Schenck, F. J., Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and "dispersive solid-phase extraction" for the determination of pesticide residues in produce, J. AOAC Int., 2003, 86, 412-431.
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[3] Fu, S. C., Tzing, S. H., Chen, H. C., Wang, Y.C., Ding, W. H., Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction combined with gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of N-nitrosamines in swimming pool water samples, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2012, 402, 2209-2216.
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[5] Tsai,W. H., Huang, T. C., Huang, J. J., Hsue, Y. H., Chuang, H. Y., Dispersive solid-phase microextraction method for sample extraction in the analysis of four tetracyclines in water and milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection, J. Chromatogr., A, 2009, 1216, 2263-2269.
[6] Shi, Z. G., Lee, H. K., Dispersive liquid−liquid microextraction coupled with dispersive μ-solid-phase extraction for the fast determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples, Anal. Chem., 2010, 82, 1540-1545.
[7] Asensio-Ramos, M., D’Orazio, G., Hernandez-Borges, J., Rocco, A., Fanali, S., Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with nano-liquid chromatography for the analysis of pesticides in water samples, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2011, 400, 1113-1123.
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[16] Wang, Y. C., Ding, W. H., Determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in water by microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 6858-6863.
[17] Hu, Z., Shi, Y., Cai, Y., Concentrations, distribution, and bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in the Haihe River of China, Chemosphere, 2011, 84, 1630-1635.
[18] Kubwabo, C., Fan, X., Rasmussen, P. E., Wu, F., Determination of synthetic musk compounds in indoor house dust by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2012, 404, 467-477.
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[26] Simonich, S. L., Federle, T. W., Eckhoff, W. S., Rottiers, A., Webb, S., Sabaliunas, D., DeWolf, W., Removal of fragrance materials during U.S. and European wastewater treatment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002, 36, 2839-2847.
[27] Peck, A. M., Analytical methods for the determination of persistent ingredients of personal care products in environmental matrices, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2006, 386, 907-939.
[28] Bester, K., Analysis of musk fragrances in environmental samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 470-480.
[29] Einsle, T., Paschke, H., Bruns, K., Schrader, S., Popp, P., Moeder, M., Membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of selected polycyclic musk compounds and drugs in water samples, J. Chromatogr.A, 2006, 1124, 196-204.
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[31] Regueiro, J., Llompart, M., Garcia-Jaresa, C., Garcia-Monteagudo, J. C., Cela, R., Preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of polycyclic musks in a wastewater treatment plant in Guandong, China, J. Chromatogr., A, 2008, 1190, 27-38.
[32] Pietrogrande, M. C., Basaglia, G., GC-MS analytical methods for the determination of personal-care products in water matrices, Trends Anal. Chem., 2007, 26, 1086-1094.
[33] Garcia-Jares, C., Llompart, M., Polo, M., Salgado, C., Macias, S., Cela, R., Optimisation of a solid-phase microextraction method for synthetic musk compounds in water, J. Chromatogr. A, 2002, 963, 277-285.
[34] Moeder, M., Schrader, S., Winkler, U., Rodil, R., At-line microextraction by packed sorbent-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of UV filter and polycyclic musk compounds in water samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2010, 1217, 2925-2932.
[35] Panagiotou, A. N., Sakkas, V. A., Albanis, T. A., Application of chemometric assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction to the determination of personal care products in natural waters, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2009, 649, 135-140.
Chapter 3
[1] Urbanowicz, M., Zabiegala, B., Namie´snik, J., Solventless sample preparation techniques based on solid- and vapour-phase extraction, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2011, 399, 277-300.
[2] Wang, Y. C., Ding, W. H., Determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in water by microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 6858-6863.
[3] Planas, C., Palacios, Ó., Ventura, F., Rivera, J. Caixach, J., Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS: Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent, Talanta, 2008, 76, 906-913.
[4] Shi, Z. G., Lee, H. K., Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with dispersive μ-solid-phase extraction for the fast determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples, Anal. Chem., 2010, 82, 1540-1545.
[5] Asensio-Ramos, M., D’Orazio, G., Hernandez-Borges, J., Rocco, A., Fanali, S., Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with nano-liquid chromatography for the analysis of pesticides in water samples, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2011, 400, 1113-1123.
[6] EURACHEM Guide The Fitness for Purpose of Analytical Methods: A Laboratory Guide to Method Validation and Related Topics, 1st ed., LGC, Teddington, 1998.
[7] Hu, Z., Shi, Y., Cai, Y., Concentrations, distribution, and bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in the Haihe River of China, Chemosphere, 2011, 84, 1630-1635.
[8] Simonich, S. L., Federle, T. W., Eckhoff, W. S., Rottiers, A., Webb, S., Sabaliunas, D., DeWolf, W., Removal of fragrance materials during U.S. and European wastewater treatment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002, 36, 2839-2847.
[9] Peck, A. M., Analytical methods for the determination of persistent ingredients of personal care products in environmental matrices, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2006, 386, 907-939.
[10] Bester, K., Analysis of musk fragrances in environmental samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 470-480.
[11] Basheer, C., Alnedhary, A. A., Rao, B. S., Valliyaveettil, S., Lee, H. K., Development and application of porous membrane-protected carbon nanotube micro-solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Anal. Chem., 2006, 78, 2853-2858.
[12] Tsai, W. H., Huang, T. C., Huang, J. J., Hsue, Y. H., Chuang, H. Y., Dispersive solid-phase microextraction method for sample extraction in the analysis of four tetracyclines in water and milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 2263-2269.
[13] Román, I. P., Chisvert, A., Canals, A., Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for UV-filter determination in water samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2011, 1218, 2467-2475.
[14] Stalikas, C., Fiamegos, Y., Sakkas, V., Albanis, T., Developments on chemometric approaches to optimize and evaluate microextraction, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 175-189.
[15] Chung, L. W., Lin, K. L., Yang, T. C. C., Lee, M. R., Orthogonal array optimization of microwave-assisted derivatization for determination of trace amphetamine and methamphetamine using negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009,1216, 4083-4089.
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[17] Einsle, T., Paschke, H., Bruns, K., Schrader, S., Popp, P., Moeder, M., Membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of selected polycyclic musk compounds and drugs in water samples, J. Chromatogr.A, 2006, 1124, 196-204.
[18] Zeng, X. Y., Sheng, G. Y., Gui, H. Y., Chen, D. H., Shao, W. L., Fu, J. M., Preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of polycyclic musks in a wastewater treatment plant in Guandong, China, Chemosphere, 2007, 69, 1305-1311.
[19] Regueiro, J., Llompart, M., Garcia-Jaresa, C., Garcia-Monteagudo, J. C., Cela, R., Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction of emergent contaminants and pesticides in environmental waters, J. Chromatogr. A, 2008, 1190, 27-38.
[20] Pietrogrande, M. C., Basaglia, G., GC-MS analytical methods for the determination of personal-care products in water matrices, Trends Anal. Chem., 2007, 26, 1086-1094.
[21] Posada-Ureta, O., Olivares, M., Navarro, P., Vallejo, A., Zuloaga, O., Etxebarria, N., Membrane assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of synthetic musks in environmental water samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2012, 1227, 38-47.
[22] Moeder, M., Schrader, S., Winkler, U., Rodil, R., At-line microextraction by packed sorbent-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of UV filter and polycyclic musk compounds in water samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2010, 1217, 2925-2932.
[23] Panagiotou, A. N., Sakkas, V. A., Albanis, T. A., Application of chemometric assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction to the determination of personal care products in natural waters, Anal. Chim. Acta., 2009, 649, 135-140.
[24] Yang, C. Y., Ding, W. H., Determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in aqueous samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2012, 402, 1723-1730.
[25] Garcia-Jares, C., Llompart, M., Polo, M., Salgado, C., Macias, S., Cela, S. R., Optimisation of a solid-phase microextraction method for synthetic musk compounds in water, J. Chromatogr. A, 2002, 963, 277-285.
Chapter 4
[1] Balmer, M. E., Buser, H. R., Muller, M. D., Poiger, T., Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss Lakes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39, 953-962.
[2] Jeona, H. K., Chungb, Y., Ryua, J. C., Simultaneous determination of benzophenone-type UV filters in water and soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2006, 1131, 192-202.
[3] Cuderman, P., Heath, E., Determination of UV filters and antimicrobial agents in environmental water samples, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2007, 387, 1343-1350.
[4] Zenker, A., Schmutz, H., Fent, K., Simultaneous trace determination of nine organic UV-absorbing compounds (UV filters) in environmental samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2008, 1202, 64-74.
[5] Rodil, R., Moeder, M., Development of a method for the determination of UV filters in water samples using stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2008, 1179, 81-88.
[6] Kawaguchi, M., Ito, R., Honda, H., Endo, N., Okanouchi, N., Saito, K., Seto, Y., Nakazawa, H., Simultaneous analysis of benzophenone sunscreen compounds in water sample by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2008, 1200, 260-263.
[7] Rodil, R., Quintana, J. B., López-Mahía, P., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S., Prada-Rodríguez, D., Multiclass Determination of Sunscreen Chemicals in Water Samples by Liquid Chromatography−Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Anal. Chem., 2008, 80, 1307-1315.
[8] Negreira, N., Rodríguez, I., Ramil, M., Rubí, E., Cela, R., Sensitive determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2009, 638, 36-44.
[9] Ho, Y.C., Ding, W.H., Solid-phase Extraction Coupled Simple On-line Derivatization Gas Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Benzophenone-type UV Filters in Aqueous Samples, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 2012, 59, 107-113.
[10] Zhang, Y.F., Lee, H. K., Determination of ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples by temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction, J. Chromatogr. A, 2013, 1271, 56-61.
[11] Wu, J.W., Chen, H.C., Ding, W.H., Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction plus simultaneous silylation for rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters in aqueous samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 2013, 1302, 20-27.
[12] Roldán-Pijuán, M., Lucena, R., Cárdenas, S., Valcárcel, M., Micro-solid phase extraction based on oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns immobilized on a stir borosilicate disk: Application to the preconcentration of the endocrine disruptor benzophenone-3, Microchem. J., 2014, 115, 87-94.
[13] Tsui, M. M. P., Leung, H. W., Wai, T. C., Yamashita, N., Taniyasu, S., Liu, W. H., Lam, P. K. S., Murphy, M. B., Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries, Water Res., 2014, 67, 55-65.
[14] Emnet, P., Gawa, S., Northcott, G., Storey, B., Graham, L., Personal care products and steroid hormones in the Antarctic coastal environment associated with two Antarctic research stations, McMurdo Station and Scott Base, Environ. Res., 2015, 136, 331-342.
[15] Tarazona, I., Chisvert, A., León, Z., Salvador, A., Determination of hydroxylated benzophenone UV filters in sea water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2010, 1217, 4771-4778.
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指導教授 丁望賢(Wang-Hsien Ding) 審核日期 2016-5-2
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