博碩士論文 963202074 詳細資訊




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姓名 江孝頤(Xiao-yi Chiang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 隨機旅行時間下混凝土生產作業及拌合車調派決策之研究
(Ready Mixed Concrete Production and Truck Dispatching Planning under Stochastic Travel Times)
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摘要(中) 良好的拌合廠作業排程規劃,可以提升澆置效率,並降低成本。目前國內拌合廠業者大多依照以往經驗,估算平均的旅行時間,以進行拌合廠作業排程規劃。此作法忽略了實務營運上旅行時間之隨機特性,若此隨機性擾動過大時,則可能使原規劃的結果失去其優越性,亦即最佳化拌合廠作業排程結果可能不為實際最佳排程。此等最佳化拌合廠作業排程在營運中受到隨機因素擾動的影響,在過去未曾發現有文獻進行探討。有鑑於此,為規劃較符合實務情況的拌合廠作業排程,本研究考量實際營運時,旅行時間之隨機變動狀況及實務營運的相關限制,以總營運成本最小化為目標,構建一隨機性模式,針對拌合廠整體澆置作業的排程規劃進行最佳化的分析,以幫助業者在有限的澆置資源下作出最佳的混凝土生產作業及拌合車的調派決策,並提高澆置作業效率。
本研究參考國內實際的拌合廠作業方式,利用時空網路流動技巧,以系統最佳化的觀點,構建一隨機性拌合廠作業排程模式。之後,本研究修正隨機性旅行時間為一固定平均旅行時間,發展一確定性拌合廠作業排程模式。另外,本研究並發展一模擬評估方法,以評估實務排程、確定性與隨機性排程規劃的結果於實際營運環境中之績效優劣。在求解上,本研究預期可定式為含額外限制式之整數規劃網路流動問題,屬NP-hard問題,當問題規模變大時,可能難以在有限的時間內利用數學規劃軟體求得一最佳解。緣此,本研究發展一隨機最佳化啟發解法,以求解隨機性旅行時間之拌合廠作業排程模式。最後,為測試本研究模式與評估方法的實用績效,本研究以台灣一拌合廠之實際營運資料為範例進行測試與分析,以了解啟發式求解演算法之績效及特性,進而提出結論與建議。
摘要(英) A good plant work schedule can improve the effectiveness of the RMC placement and thus reduce the operating costs. In current practices, the plant work schedule is typically designed by the staff’s experience, in accordance with the projected(or average) fleet travel times, meaning that stochastic disturbances arising from variations in vehicle travel times in actual operations are neglected. In the worst case scenario, where vehicle travel times fluctuate wildly during daily operations, the planned plant work schedule could be disturbed enough to lose its optimality. Since there has been no research on plant work scheduling problems that can account for stochastic fleet travel times, in this research stochastic disturbance of daily travel times that occur in actual operations are considered from the basis of the carrier’s perspective. We develop a stochastic plant work scheduling model, with the objective of minimizing the total operating costs. The model is expected to be useful planning tool for carriers to decide on their optimal plant work schedules in their operations.
We employ network flow technique with the system optimization perspective, to construct a stochastic plant work scheduling model. Then, we modified the variational travel time parameters in the stochastic plant work scheduling model as fixed variable to develop a deterministic scheduling model. In addition, we still also develop a simulation-based evaluation method to evaluate the actual operation, deterministic and stochastic scheduling models in real world. The model is formulated as integer network flow problem with side constraints, which is characterized as NP-hard. Since the problem size is expected to be huge, the model is difficult to solve in a reasonable time. Therefore, we develop a heuristic, for solving stochastic plant work scheduling problems. Numerical tests based on real operating data from RMC plant were performed to evaluate the proposed solution algorithm. Conclusions and suggestions were given finally.
關鍵字(中) ★ 啟發解
★ 澆置
★ 隨機性旅行時間
★ 模擬
★ 拌合廠作業排程
關鍵字(英) ★ plant work schedule
★ placement
★ stochastic travel times
★ simulation
★ heuristic
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與範圍 2
1.3 研究方法與程式架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 現況分析 5
2.2 混凝土生產作業與拌合車調派問題 6
2.3 時窗限制之車輛派遣問題 8
2.4 時空網路之相關文獻 9
2.5 隨機擾動之相關理論與文獻 13
2.5.1 隨機性問題相關理論 13
2.5.2 隨機擾動相關文獻 16
2.6 小結 19
第三章 模式構建 21
3.1 隨機性拌合廠作業排程模式 21
3.1.1 基本假設 21
3.1.2 模式符號說明 23
3.1.3 隨機性模式之時空網路 26
3.1.3.1 限制說明 31
3.1.3.2 非預期性懲罰成本( )設計 35
3.1.4 數學定式 38
3.2 確定性拌合廠作業排程模式 41
3.2.1 確定性模式之時空網路 41
3.2.2 符號說明 42
3.2.3 數學定式 43
3.3 模擬評估方法 44
3.4 小結 45
第四章 模式求解 46
4.1 啟發解法架構 46
4.2 目標值下限解 48
4.3 小結 50
第五章 範例測試 51
5.1 資料輸入 51
5.1.1澆置作業資料 51
5.1.2營運成本資料 52
5.2 模式發展 53
5.2.1 問題規模 53
5.2.2 模式輸入資料 55
5.3 電腦演算環境及設定 55
5.3.1 電腦演算環境 55
5.3.2 相關程式設定 56
5.3.3 模式輸出資料 56
5.4 測試結果與分析 57
5.4.1 隨機狀況數目 57
5.4.2 隨機性拌合廠作業排程結果 59
5.4.3 模式比較分析 63
5.5 敏感度分析 64
5.1.1 拌合車規模敏感度分析 64
5.5.2 需求大小敏感度分析 66
5.5.3 隨機分配模式敏感度分析 68
5.5.2.1 平均數變動 68
5.5.2.2 標準差變動 70
5.5.4 違反冷縫限制懲罰成本( ) 71
5.5.5 達冷縫機率上限(100%)之時間 73
5.6 方案分析 75
5.6.1 非預期性懲罰成本之冷縫機率分配型態方案分析 75
5.6.2 問題規模方案分析 77
5.7 小結 79
第六章 結論與建議 80
6.1 結論 80
6.2 建議 81
6.3 貢獻 81
參考文獻 83
附 錄 90
附錄一 CPLEX Callable Library Code 90
附錄二 91
附錄三 92
附錄四 92
附錄五 93
附錄六 93
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指導教授 顏上堯(Shang-Yao Yan) 審核日期 2008-7-15
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