博碩士論文 963202090 詳細資訊




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姓名 林宛蓉(Wan-jung Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 多層次精緻度三維房屋模型之建置
(Level of detail generation of 3D building models)
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摘要(中) 三維房屋模型是重建都市景觀最重要的元件之一。但龐大的房屋模型資料會降低應用系統的整體效能。為了在數碼城市中達成互動式的視覺模擬效果與即時顯像的功能,建置多層次精緻度模型(Level of Detail, LOD)為常用來減少非必要顯像的處理方法。經由建置不同精緻度的模型,視覺模擬系統可依據使用者不同的視覺條件挑選最適合精緻度層級之模型顯像,加速整體系統處理效能。本研究即針對三維多面體房屋模型,提出一半自動簡化方法,建置三維房屋之多層次精緻度模型,以增進數碼城市即時視覺模擬及應用之效率。
本研究之主要構想為利用房屋建築三視圖概念,經由簡化三維房屋模型之多方向二維投影,改變房屋模型之幾何型態,再重組以建置多層次精緻度三維房屋模型。首先,透過房屋模型之幾何結構分析決定房屋模型需進行之簡化層數,以及是否包含非平頂之屋頂結構。對於欲簡化之房屋模型以正射投影產生不同方向之二維投影面。為建立投影面外圍輪廓之位相關係,本研究引用並改良網格化及TDGO運算子,開發投影面前處理演算法進行處理。二維投影面簡化流程即利用前處理所得二維投影面之位相關係計算各投影面上各線段之長度及相對角度,針對投影面上各線段進行正規化流程及移除符合簡化門檻值之U型、Z型、L型結構。再透過本研究開發以布林運算子為基礎之組合演算法,將簡化投影面重組為低精緻度三維房屋模型。對於房屋中之特殊結構,如非平頂屋頂結構、中庭構造及非平面牆面結構,本研究以半自動之額外處理方式對特殊結構進行簡化並維持其特徵。最後,將處理後之特殊結構與已簡化之平頂(牆面)主體模型組合後即完成三維房屋模型簡化程序。
本研究測試兩組不同類型之大範圍房屋群,測區位於中央大學及台北市信義區。檢視個別房屋模型之實驗成果驗證顯示,本研究所提出以二維投影面簡化三維房屋模型之方式,可有效簡化三維房屋之幾何結構。而將本研究方法應用於大範圍之房屋群,實驗成果則證明本研究方法在不同精緻度層級皆可有效降低整體房屋模型之總點數及總面數。此外,本研究所提出處理三維房屋模型中特殊結構之方法的確可在簡化房屋模型後仍維持房屋模型之重要可視特徵。
摘要(英) Three dimensional (3D) building model is one of the most important components in the construction and representation of urban scenes. In application systems, the vast amount of building data may lead to lower efficiency. For interactive visualization and real-time rendering in cyber city applications, Level of Detail (LOD) technique is a common approach to reduce unnecessary computations. LOD technique can generate different details of data and set appropriate levels according to viewing parameters to enhance visualization system performance.
This research proposes a semi-automatic approach for the generalization of 3D polyhedral building models to formulate LOD representations of complicated buildings for high performance visualization of cyber city. The idea is to apply generalization in 2D orthographic views of 3D building models. First, (geometric) structure analysis is conducted to compute shape complexity for determining the number of levels to generalize and to detect non-planar roof structures. For building models to generalize, orthographic views along different directions of the 3D building geometries are generated. To construct the topology of orthographic views, rasterization techniques and modified quasi-Target Defined Ground Operator (quasi-TDGO) are used in pre-processing of orthographic views. By calculating the lengths and angles with the topology, the edge regularization and U-, Z-, L-structures elimination are employed to generalize 2D orthographic views. Simplified 3D models are reconstructed from generalized 2D orthographic views with Boolean-based algorithms. For special structures of building models, such as buildings with non-planar roof structures, courtyards, and curved elements, additional processes are developed to simplify them but maintain their characteristics. Finally, these special structures are combined with reconstructed façades to complete the generalization of 3D building models.
Two groups of complex building models in National Central University (NCU) campus and the Xinyi District of Taipei city are used to test the developed building generalization algorithms. Experimental results of single building models demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively simplify 3D building geometries with generalized 2D orthographic views of building models. For building groups in large areas, the proposed method is effective in decreasing the number of points and polygons of building groups in different levels. In addition, the experimental results of building models with special structures are also validated, proving that the proposed approach can preserve important visual characteristics of complicated building models.
關鍵字(中) ★ 三維房屋模型簡化
★ 視覺模擬
★ 數碼城市
★ 精緻度層級
關鍵字(英) ★ cyber city
★ visualization
★ 3D building generalization
★ Level of Detail
論文目次 目錄
摘要 ........................................................................................................................ i
Abstract ................................................................................................................ iii
目錄 ....................................................................................................................... v
圖目錄 .................................................................................................................. ix
表目錄 ................................................................................................................ xiii
第一章 前言 ......................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究背景 ..................................................................................................... 1
1-2 文獻回顧 ..................................................................................................... 5
1-2-1 向量幾何運算 ..................................................................................... 7
1-2-2 切割房屋單元重組 ........................................................................... 10
1-2-3 小結 ................................................................................................... 12
1-3 研究目的 ................................................................................................... 14
1-4 論文架構 ................................................................................................... 15
第二章 研究方法 ............................................................................................... 17
2-1 研究流程 ................................................................................................... 17
2-2 結構分析 ................................................................................................... 20
2-2-1 房屋複雜度計算 ............................................................................... 21
2-2-2 屋頂結構判別 ................................................................................... 24
2-3 投影面產生及前處理............................................................................... 25
2-3-1 水平投影面前處理 ........................................................................... 27
2-3-2 垂直投影面前處理 ........................................................................... 33
2-4 投影面簡化 ............................................................................................... 37
2-4-1 簡化門檻設定 ................................................................................... 37
2-4-2 短邊結構正規化 ............................................................................... 38
2-4-3 凹凸結構簡化 ................................................................................... 39
2-5 投影面組合 ............................................................................................... 41
2-5-1 俯視面交會前視面及側視面 ........................................................... 42
2-5-2 切割俯視面 ....................................................................................... 43
2-5-3 各切割面高程給定 ........................................................................... 47
2-5-4 建立切割面對應之牆面 ................................................................... 49
2-6 屋頂結構簡化 ........................................................................................... 49
2-6-1 山型屋 ............................................................................................... 50
2-6-2 弧頂屋 ............................................................................................... 51
2-7 含特殊牆面結構之房屋模型處理 .......................................................... 53
2-7-1 中庭構造 ........................................................................................... 53
2-7-2 非平面牆面結構 ............................................................................... 54
第三章 實驗成果與分析 ................................................................................... 57
3-1 實驗資料及測試區介紹 .......................................................................... 58
3-1-1 測區Ⅰ資料簡介 ............................................................................... 59
3-1-2 測區Ⅱ資料簡介 ............................................................................... 60
3-2 平頂房屋模型簡化案例 .......................................................................... 61
3-2-1 平頂房屋模型案例Ⅰ ....................................................................... 61
3-2-2 平頂房屋模型案例Ⅱ ....................................................................... 64
3-3 非平頂房屋模型簡化案例 ...................................................................... 67
3-3-1 山型屋 ............................................................................................... 68
3-3-2 圓弧頂 ............................................................................................... 69
3-4 含特殊牆面結構之房屋模型簡化案例 .................................................. 69
3-4-1 中庭構造 ........................................................................................... 70
3-4-2 非平面牆面結構 ............................................................................... 72
3-5 測區Ⅰ整體簡化成果............................................................................... 74
3-5-1 測區Ⅰ各精緻度層級展示 ............................................................... 74
3-5-2 測區Ⅰ之簡化成果評估 ................................................................... 77
3-6 測區Ⅱ整體簡化成果............................................................................... 80
3-6-1 測區Ⅱ各精緻度層級展示 ............................................................... 80
3-6-2 測區Ⅱ之簡化成果評估 ................................................................... 83
第四章 結論與建議 ........................................................................................... 87
參考文獻 ............................................................................................................. 90
圖目錄
圖1- 1 CityGML 定義城市模型五層級精緻度(Gröger et al., 2008) ................. 4
圖1- 2 常見房屋模型形式(李唐宇,2007) ....................................................... 6
圖1- 3 以形態學運算子進行房屋簡化(Mayer, 1998) ...................................... 8
圖1- 4 以移動牆面進行房屋簡化(Forberg, 2007) ............................................ 8
圖1- 5 多面體房屋模型之簡化成果(Rau et al., 2006) ..................................... 9
圖1- 6 以三視投影面簡化鄰近房屋群組(Anders, 2005) ............................... 10
圖1- 7 以房屋牆面區別房屋主體與特徵(Thiemann, 2002) .......................... 11
圖1- 8 以CSG-tree 描述房屋組成(Thiemann & Sester, 2004) ...................... 11
圖1- 9 以切割至房屋單元之簡化(Kada, 2007) .............................................. 12
圖2- 1 相連多面體模型之組合 ....................................................................... 17
圖2- 2 三維房屋簡化策略 ............................................................................... 18
圖 2- 3 研究流程圖 ........................................................................................... 19
圖2- 4 房屋中常見之正交結構(Forberg, 2007) ............................................... 20
圖2- 5 房屋複雜度範例.................................................................................... 23
圖2- 6 屋頂結構分類(李唐宇,2007) ............................................................. 24
圖2- 7 平頂(牆面)主體與屋頂結構分割 ......................................................... 25
圖2- 8 工程視圖 ................................................................................................ 26
圖2- 9 投影面外圍輪廓之位相關係 ............................................................... 27
圖2- 10 投影面前處理之假設 ......................................................................... 27
圖2- 11 投影面外圍輪廓之外包面萃取 ......................................................... 28
圖2- 12 影像位元形式編碼 ............................................................................. 29
圖2- 13 搜尋投影面輪廓線上點位之目標視窗 ............................................. 30
圖2- 14 經由TDGO 所偵測之角點 ................................................................ 30
圖2- 15 面搜尋流程(A)及成果(B)................................................................... 32
圖2- 16 垂直投影面.......................................................................................... 34
圖2- 17 垂直投影面前處理使用之目標視窗 ................................................. 35
圖2- 18 垂直投影面前處理 ............................................................................. 37
圖2- 19 短邊結構正規化 ................................................................................. 39
圖2- 20 凸結構 .................................................................................................. 40
圖2- 21 凹結構(U 型、Z 型、L 型) ................................................................ 40
圖2- 22 三視投影面簡化示範例 ..................................................................... 41
圖2- 23 三維模型重組流程圖 ......................................................................... 42
圖2- 24 前側視圖切割俯視面 ......................................................................... 43
圖2- 25 欲切割之俯視面 ................................................................................. 44
圖2- 26 切點判斷 .............................................................................................. 45
圖2- 27 交點判斷 .............................................................................................. 45
圖2- 28 內包面示意圖...................................................................................... 46
圖2- 29 高程誤判 .............................................................................................. 48
圖2- 30 單一平面座標包含兩高程 ................................................................. 48
圖2- 31 經高程修正之切割面 ......................................................................... 48
圖2- 32 簡化後之三維平頂(牆面)主體 ........................................................... 49
圖2- 33 山型屋分類(Kada, 2007) .................................................................... 51
圖2- 34 以投影簡化產生之近似山型屋基礎元 ............................................. 51
圖2- 35 弧頂之參數擬合 ................................................................................. 52
圖2- 36 含弧頂之房屋簡化模型 ..................................................................... 53
圖2- 37 含中庭構造之簡化處理 ..................................................................... 54
圖2- 38 非平面牆面結構之特徵點選取 ......................................................... 55
圖2- 39 非平面牆面結構之參數擬合 ............................................................. 55
圖2- 40 包含盒狀結構之房屋模型 ................................................................. 56
圖3- 1 本研究所定義之房屋多層次精緻度 ................................................... 58
圖3- 2 測區Ⅰ原始房屋模型(BLOD3) ............................................................ 59
圖3- 3 測區Ⅱ原始房屋模型(BLOD3) ............................................................ 61
圖3- 4 平頂房屋模型案例Ⅰ之簡化成果 ....................................................... 64
圖3- 5 平頂房屋模型案例Ⅱ之簡化成果 ....................................................... 67
圖3- 6 含山型屋之房屋模型案例 ................................................................... 68
圖3- 7 含圓弧頂之房屋模型 ........................................................................... 69
圖3- 8 含中庭構造之房屋模型 ....................................................................... 70
圖3- 9 含中庭構造之房屋模型(近似例) ......................................................... 71
圖3- 10 含圓弧牆面之房屋模型 ..................................................................... 72
圖3- 11 含多個圓弧牆面之房屋模型.............................................................. 73
圖3- 12 含多個圓弧牆面之房屋模型(馬蹄型) ............................................... 73
圖3- 13 BLOD3 (測區Ⅰ) .................................................................................. 75
圖3- 14 BLOD2 (測區Ⅰ) .................................................................................. 76
圖3- 15 BLOD1 (測區Ⅰ) .................................................................................. 76
圖3- 16 BLOD0 (測區Ⅰ) .................................................................................. 77
圖3- 17 測區Ⅰ各房屋模型於各精緻度層級之點個數對照圖 ..................... 79
圖3- 18 測區Ⅰ各房屋模型於各精緻度層級之面個數對照圖 ..................... 79
圖3- 19 BLOD3 (測區Ⅱ) .................................................................................. 81
圖3- 20 BLOD2 (測區Ⅱ) .................................................................................. 82
圖3- 21 BLOD1 (測區Ⅱ) .................................................................................. 82
圖3- 22 BLOD0 (測區Ⅱ) .................................................................................. 83
圖3- 23 測區Ⅱ各房屋模型於各精緻度層級之點個數對照圖 ...................... 85
圖3- 24 測區Ⅱ各房屋模型於各精緻度層級之面個數對照圖 ...................... 85
圖3- 25 測區Ⅱ中幾何變異較大之案例 ......................................................... 86
表目錄
表1- 1 房屋簡化方法之比較 ........................................................................... 14
表2- 1 使用本研究與Grabler et al. (2008)計算之房屋複雜度 ...................... 23
表3- 1 測區Ⅰ內房屋模型編號與房屋複雜度對照表 ................................... 60
表3- 2 平頂房屋案例Ⅰ各精緻度層級使用之簡化門檻值 ............................ 62
表3- 3 平頂房屋案例Ⅰ各精緻度層級之點數與面數對照表 ....................... 63
表3- 4 平頂房屋案例Ⅱ各精緻度層級使用之簡化門檻值 ............................ 65
表3- 5 平頂房屋案例Ⅱ各精緻度層級之點數與面數對照表 ........................ 66
表3- 6 測區Ⅰ各精緻度層級對應之點個數與面個數 ................................... 78
表3- 7 測區Ⅱ各精緻度層級對應之點個數與面個數 ................................... 84
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指導教授 蔡富安(Fuan Tsai) 審核日期 2009-7-17
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