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姓名 艾思娜(Ana Elizabeth Amaya Garay)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 聖薩爾瓦多都會區設置固體廢棄物資源回收廠可行性研究
(Feasibility Study of Establishing Recovery Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in San Salvador)
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摘要(中) 薩爾瓦多現今亟需要發展夠水準的固體廢棄物管理政策及設施,包括廢棄物產量管控、清運、回收與再利用、處理方法及最終處置等。近年來薩爾瓦多政府已逐年改善廢棄物任意棄置的情況,朝向興建衛生掩埋場,雖然,此項衛生掩埋場的工程品質尚未達到可有效維護公眾健康的水準。為減輕掩埋場的負荷且延續其使用期限,本研究探討聖薩爾瓦多都會區的都市廢棄物採取資源回收再利用的可行做法,包括調查民眾對於興建資源回收廠的意見或看法,及進行財務試算。
聖薩爾瓦多的人口數於2012年即可達2,021,171人,以每年1.61%的成長率推估,至2026年將增至2,527,629人。因而帶動都市固體廢棄物量的增加,本研究推估,至2026年,聖薩爾瓦多都會區的都市垃圾將達到每年894,907公噸的產生量,也即是2,452公噸/天。為有效回收處理聖薩爾瓦多的固體廢棄物,茲研擬興建一座設計容量為1200公噸/天的廢棄物資源回收廠(簡稱MRF廠),所需佔地面積約2公頃,用以回收包括紙類、鋁金屬類、玻璃類、塑膠類及其他資源物。所規劃的MRF廠之主要設施包括破碎機、篩選機、人工分類設施及捆紮包裝裝置等。
本研究之MRF廠興建單價,係參考智利共和國類似回收廠的單價,即每單位設計容量(公噸/天)為美金19,366元,但本MRF廠尚需設置廢水處理及空氣污染物過濾裝置,則單位成本設定為美金21,300元;據此,1200公噸/天的MRF廠之造價為25,560,000美元。為進行財務分析所需的各類資源物的出售單價,則參考現今聖薩爾瓦多的回收商市場價格,在假定為政府出資的情況下,不考慮利息支出,分析後的內部報酬率(IRR)為57%,投資回收期為2年。本研究亦進行敏感度分析,假設市場收購所回收廢棄物的單價減少20%,每年操作費用自1%增加至2%的情況下,IRR將降至37%,回收期仍為2年。
摘要(英) In El Salvador, qualified solid waste management, which involves control of generation, collection, transportation, recovery/reuse, treatment processing, and disposal of wastes is eager to be developed. The final disposal in this country has gradually improved in recent years by switching from open-air dumping to the constructions of landfills, even though it still is not constructed in a manner according to the best principles of public health. For reducing the loading of landfill that can sustain the life-time of the operating landfills in El Salvador, this study focuses on finding a viable and feasible alternative for the recovery and utilization of solid wastes applied in San Salvador, the metropolis of El Salvador. To collect the public’s opinions of establishing a recovery plant in San Salvador for assessing the social situation, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Furthermore, a brief financial analysis was also prepared to evaluate the economic feasibility of establishing the plant.
The population of San Salvador in 2012 will be 2,021,171 people, and with 1.61% annual increase rate, in 2026 the population will increase to 2,527,629 people, and MSW amount will be 894,907 tons per year that is 2,452 tons per day. For having a MRF plant to effectively recover the resources of MSW in San Salvador, the design capacity of the recovery plant is 1200 ton per day constructed on the land area of 3.3 hectares. The municipal solid waste plant is designed to majorly separate paper and cardboard, aluminum, glasses, plastics, and other valuable materials. The material recovery facility (MRF) includes size reduction units, screen separator, manual sorting system and packing unit. The MRF will be operating during its life-time of 15 years.
Base on the construction unit price (US$19,366 /tpd) of MRF plant in Viña del Mar, Republic of Chile, the proposed MRF in this study is estimated a unit price at US$21,300 per tpd (tons per day in design capacity). The initial construction capital for MRF of 1,200 tpd is US$25,560,000.The construction cost has included the costs of wastewater treatment system and air-pollutant filter. The major revenue is the sale of recovered materials produced from the MRF. According the market price of these recovered materials in San Salvador, and in the condition of that construction cost is come from government’s budget without interest payment, the results of financial analysis are that the IRR (internal rate of return) is 57%, and payoff period is two years. A sensitivity analysis is used to assess the impact of the actual outcome of a particular variable. In sensitivity analysis, we assume the sale prices of recovered materials are lower 20% in the present market. In addition, we assume the operation cost is increased to 2% of the construction capital. The result shows that the IRR will decrease to 37%, and the payoff still needs two years.
關鍵字(中) ★ 資源回收廠
★ 都市固體廢棄物
★ 循環再利用
★ 廢棄物回收廠
關鍵字(英) ★ MRF
★ material recovery facility
★ waste recovery plant
★ recycling
★ Municipal solid waste
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT i
摘要 iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES xi
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Study Objective 1
1.2 Scope of the study 2
1.3 Methodology 2
1.4 Research Difficulties 2
CHAPTER TWO 4
THEORETICAL REVIEW 4
2.1 Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries 4
2.1.1 CHALLENGES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 5
2.1.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 9
2.2 Integrated Sustainable Waste Management 10
2.2.1 HIERARCHY OF WASTE MANAGEMENT 11
2.3 Recovery and Utilization of Resources 13
2.3.1 COST AND COST RECOVERY 13
CHAPTER THREE 16
TECHNICAL EVALUATION 16
3.1 Types of Materials Recovery Facility 16
3.1.1 MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY (CLEAN MRF) 16
3.1.1.1 CLEAR MRFS BY SIZE AND CONFIGURATION 20
3.1.1.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CLEAN MRFS 21
3.1.2 DIRTY MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY 22
3.1.2.1. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF DIRTY MRFS 23
3.2 Level of Mechanization of the Recovery Plant 24
3.3 Factors affecting material recovery rates. 25
3.4 Site Preparation 26
CHAPTER FOUR 29
Solid Waste Management in El Salvador 29
4.1 El Salvador General Data 29
POPULATION 30
ECONOMICS 32
WASTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES 33
4.2 Solid Waste Management in El Salvador 34
NATIONAL POLICIES 34
WASTE MANAGEMENT LEGISLATION 35
MUNICIPAL LEGISLATION 36
SOCIO-CULTURAL ISSUES 36
4.3 Solid Waste Generation in El Salvador. 38
4.3.1 COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT OF SOLID WASTE 41
4.3.2 WASTE SEPARATION & RECYCLING 46
RECYCLING MARKET IN EL SALVADOR 47
RECYCLING MARKET ACTORS 47
POTENTIAL RECYCLABLE MATERIALS IN EL SALVADOR 50
POTENTIAL RECYCLABLE MATERIAL 52
NON-FERROUS MATERIALS 52
PAPER AND CARDBOARD 53
PLASTIC 54
TEXTILES 58
GLASS 60
PARTICIPATION RECYCLING MATERIALS IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET 61
PRICES AND VOLUMES OF PURCHASES AND SALES 63
4.3.3 COMPOSTING 66
4.3.4 LANDFILLS 68
4.4 Municipal Solid Waste in San Salvador 70
GENERAL DATA 70
SOLID WASTE COMPOSITION IN SAN SALVADOR 72
GENERAL DATA AND WASTE GENERATION OF MUNICIPALITIES WITH COLLECTION SERVICES 73
WASTE GENERATION 77
CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 79
4.4.1 FINAL DISPOSAL 79
4.4.2 RECYCLING 81
CHAPTER FIVE 84
PROPOSED PROJECT AND DISCUSSION 84
5.1 Projections of MSW Generation in San Salvador 84
DESIGN CAPACITY OF MRF IN SAN SALVADOR 90
5.2 Material Recovery Facility Proposal in San Salvador 93
LAND AREA REQUIRED 94
5.2.1 TECHNICAL PROCESS 95
SEPARATION EX SITU AND AUTOMATED PLANT 95
5.2.2 PRODUCTION PROCESS 98
COMMON ASPECTS OF THE LINES 98
SEPARATION LINE 100
5.3.3 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 103
CAPITAL COST 103
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS 103
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF MRF´s DESIGNED FOR SAN SALVADOR 106
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF MRF´s DESIGNED FOR SAN SALVADOR 108
5.3 Results and Discussion 110
QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS 111
REPRESENTATION OF MUNICIPALITIES 112
KNOWLEDGE IN WASTE TREATMENT FACILITIES 112
WASTE SEPARATION AT SOURCE 115
CURRENT TARIFF FOR COLLECTION SERVICE 116
WILLINGNESS TO PAY 117
CHAPTER SIX 121
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 121
6.1 Conclusions 121
6.2 Recommendations 125
BIBLIOGRAPHIES 127
APPENDIX A 131
APPENDIX B 134
APPENDIX C 137
APPENDIX D 142
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指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-Li Liao) 審核日期 2009-7-8
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