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姓名 林尚儀(Shang-I Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 營建管理研究所
論文名稱 永續道路工程影響因子與人力推估模式之建立
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摘要(中) 永續道路工程影響因子與人力推估模式
摘要
公共建設是推動國家總體經濟發展常用作法,道路工程為主要項目之一,隨著全球氣候變遷加劇,世界各國開始意識到永續發展之重要性。從道路工程全生命週期的角度來看,包含規劃、設計、施工及後續的維護管理等各階段,又因為道路工程往往須投注相當可觀之經費與社會成本,所以在規劃設計階段,即應從「永續」觀點計算投注的總體成本到未來的預期效益,進行完整的成本效益評估。而在進入施工階段後,則因為人力短缺情形日益嚴重,產生工程落後、影響完工期程等現象,並衍生履約爭議問題。
本研究第1階段利用問卷調查方式,發放了120份問卷並針對所回收之54樣本,採用敘述性統計分析刪除無效因子,再以因素分析萃取出之潛伏因素,分析後獲得成本方面有3個潛伏因素,包括9個因子,效益方面有2個潛伏因素,包括6個因子。其目的在確立永續性道路工程影響因素及量化影響程度與權重,供道路工程從業人員在規劃設計階段中納入考量,確保永續概念的有效落實。第2階段則利用類神經網路及約略集加上類神經網路的方法,建立評估專案工程人力的2種評估模式,其中約略集加上類神經網路的評估模式,具有88.63%的平均準確率,足已有效證明其可行性,期藉由本研究所建立的模型,應可以在專案工程人力分配預估上,成為一個有用的工具,並可對專案工程主辦機關提出預警機制,有效避免人力短缺現象產生。

關鍵詞:永續性道路影響因子、因素分析、專案工程人力、約略集、類神經網路。
摘要(英) Identifying and developing impact factors and human allocation model for sustainable road construction

ABSTRACT

This research is firstly to identify impact factors in both cost and benefit aspects using quantitative techniques and then to determine their corresponding weights for sustainable road engineering projects. The second objective is to develop a human allocation model for sustainable road construction based on the findings from the first goal. The impact factors are initially gathered from literature review and expert interviews, resulting in a total of 10 factors for questionnaire development. A 5-scale Likert questionnaire is accordingly developed for a survey. With the fulfillment of statistical criteria, 54 of 120 questionnaires are returned and a reliability test is employed to examine sampling adequacy in the beginning stage of data analysis. Therefore, we are able to identify the impact factors by the use of eight tests of missing value, mean, standard deviation, skewness, t-testing, correlation coefficients, factor loading, and measures of sampling adequacy (MSA). To determine the weight of each factor, the principle component analysis combined with orthogonal rotation best fit this research. Therefore, the analysis yields the results showing that 3 components include 9 factors in the cost aspect and 2 components include 6 factors in the benefit aspect. The finding is anticipated to benefit practitioners in the designing, planning, budgeting, and controlling phases of road engineering projects.

Based on the finding, a database for assessing human resource allocation in pavement engineering was established by collecting detailed information from various construction projects. Fourteen influence factors were summarized through literature review and consultation with experts in the field. Thirty two road-smoothing projects were then randomly selected. Using the rough set approach and an artificial neural network model, a model for assessing human resource allocation in pavement engineering was developed. The model validity is verified by an average accuracy of 88.63%. Therefore, this proposed model can be viewed as a useful tool for estimating human resource demand in pavement engineering. It can also effectively alert the authority to avoid a shortage in manpower, preventing the construction project from falling behind schedule or even early termination as a result of inappropriate resource allocation.

Keywords: sustainable road construction, human allocation, questionnaire survey, factor analysis, rough set, pavement engineering, artificial neural network.
關鍵字(中) ★ 永續性道路影響因子
★ 因素分析
★ 專案工程人力
★ 約略集
★ 類神經網路
關鍵字(英) ★ sustainable road construction
★ factor analysis
★ human allocation
★ rough set
★ artificial neural network
論文目次 目 錄
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目 錄 iv
圖 目 錄 vi
表 目 錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 研究目的 4
1.4 研究範圍與限制 5
1.5 研究流程與步驟 7
第二章 文獻回顧 11
2.1 永續工程的定義 11
2.2 永續道路工程的因子類型 18
2.2.1 「道路建設綠營建評估指標系統之研究」 18
2.2.2 「建立道路工程綠營建審議指標之研究」 20
2.2.3 「道路建設與生態工法」 22
2.2.4 影響永續道路規劃設計因子 23
2.3 營造工程的專案特性 25
2.4 專案工程人力管理及預估 27
2.4.1 專案工程人力管理 27
2.4.2 各國人力供需推估研究 28
2.4.3 利用類神經網路和約略集的應用管理 35
第三章 研究方法 37
3.1約略集演算法架構 39
3.1.1 資訊系統與決策表 39
3.1.2 不可分辨關係 41
3.1.3 下限與上限近似 41
3.1.4 簡化集合及核心屬性 44
3.1.5 應用領域 46
3.2 類神經網路 47
3.3 因素分析 56
3.3.1 基本概念 56
3.3.2 因素模式 56
3.3.3 因素個數之決定 58
3.3.4 因素命名 60
3.3.5 因素的轉軸 62
3.3.6 因素分析之操作步驟 65
第四章 永續性道路工程影響因子 67
4.1 問卷設計與變數說明 67
4.2 問卷發放及回收 69
4.3 道路工程導入永續概念之影響層面 71
4.4 討論 81
第五章 道路工程人力推估模式 83
5.1 研究架構與步驟 83
5.2 資料來源 84
5.3 專家訪談 85
5.4 變數說明 86
5.5 模式說明 88
5.5.1 模式1:倒傳遞類神經網路 88
5.5.2 模式2:約略集結合倒傳遞類神經網路 89
5.6 研究結果 93
5.6.1 K疊交叉驗證法 94
5.6.2 分析結果 96
5.7 研究發現 97
第六章 結論與建議 99
6.1 研究結論 99
6.2 研究建議與管理策略 102
參考文獻 105
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指導教授 陳介豪(Jieh-Haur Chen) 審核日期 2016-7-18
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