博碩士論文 965201003 詳細資訊




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姓名 謝柏賢(Po-Hsien Hsieh)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 應用於3GPP-LTE下行多天線接收系統高速行駛下之通道追蹤與等化
(Channel Tracking and Equalization in 3GPP-LTE Downlink MIMO Receiver in Highly Time-Selective Fading Channels)
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摘要(中) 在本篇論文中,我們根據3GPP-LTE的標準設計多天線接收系統的通道追蹤與等化器。主要包含通道響應追蹤,載波間干擾消除,與多輸入多輸出等化器,最後是硬體電路設計與確定電路字長。我們提出排序選擇機制來使多輸入多輸出正交分頻多工系統(MIMO-OFDM)的決策導向(decision-directed) 遞迴最小平方(Recursive Least Square, RLS)可適性通道追蹤演算法能在高移動環境下運作。模擬的結果證明我們提出的方法較二維(Two-Dimensional Recursive Least Square, 2D-RLS)演算法與傳統線性內插器佳。高速時變通道產生嚴重載波間干擾效應(Inter-Carrier Interference, ICI),嚴重破壞RLS可適性演算法參考訊號的正確度,因此ICI補償是必須的。我們使用一階線性方法估計ICI係數,與平行載波間干擾消去法抵消ICI效應。在硬體設計的部分,我們使用排序漸續干擾消除法(Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation, OSIC)多輸入多輸出偵測器,其在硬體設計考量下改用QR分解取代,降低硬體複雜度。以及在ICI消去法上,做架構上改變,使運算單元下降。我們對傳統RLS可適性演算法做了兩方面的化簡,取實部運算與RLS的一次遞迴過程重新排程,故可因此大幅降低乘法器,使其可能實現在多天線接收機的硬體上。
摘要(英) In this thesis, we discuss the channel tracking and equalization mechanisms of 3GPP-LTE downlink MIMO receivers in high mobility environments. The main blocks in the receiver include RLS channel tracking, ICI cancellation, MIMO detection. An ordered selection scheme is proposed to resist the possible error propagation due to wrong decisions in the decision-directed RLS adaptive channel tracking algorithm in 2×2 spatial-multiplexing MIMO-OFDM systems under high mobility. Simulation results show that the channel tracking accuracy of the proposed approach outperforms the 2D-RLS algorithm and the conventional linear interpolation algorithm. And due to the severe ICI effect spoils the accuracy of reference signal for our RLS adaptive interpolator. We use the first order linear approximation to approximate the ICI coefficient and utilize the parallel ICI cancellation to compensate the ICI effect. For hardware complexity consideration, we replace the architecture of the OSIC by QR decomposition. For ICI cancellation, we also reduce its complexity by hardware sharing. Moreover, with calculating real parts of the covariance matrix and the rescheduling for RLS iteration procedures, we save almost 66% complex multipliers. Therefore, the hardware implementation of a MIMO receiver supporting high-mobility is feasible.
關鍵字(中) ★ RLS adaptive algorithm
★ Doppler effect
★ 3GPP-LTE
★ MIMO-OFDM
★ Channel estimation
關鍵字(英) ★ 都卜勒
★ 可適性演算法
★ 長期演進技術
★ 多輸入多輸出正交分頻多工系統
★ 通道估測
論文目次 目錄………………………………………...…………………………………………iii
圖示列表………………………………………...……………………………………vi
表格列表…………………………………………………...…..……………………ix
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 簡介………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 動機………………………………………………………………………………3
1.3 論文組織…………………………………………………………………………3
第二章 OFDM 系統與 3GPP LTE標準介紹…………………………………..…4
2.1 正交分頻多工(OFDM)系統介紹……………………………….................……4
2.2 3GPP LTE 系統規格………………………………………………………...…10
2.2.1 領航訊號型式(Pilot Pattern) ………………..…………………………..14
第三章 基頻通道模型………………………………………..……………………17
3.1 等效基頻通道模型…………………………………………………………..…17
3.2 多路徑衰減通道(multi-path fading channel) …………………………….……18
3.2.1 3GPP多輸入多輸出(MIMO)空間通道模型(Spatial Channel Model, SCM) ……………………………………………………………...…19
3.2.2 通道模型參數….…………………………………….………………22
3.2.3 時變通道…………………………………………….………………24
3.3 加成性白色高斯雜訊(Additive White Gaussian Noise, AWGN) …….…25
3.4 接收端不匹配效應…………………………………………………….…26
3.4.1 載波頻率偏移(Carrier Frequency Offset, CFO) ……………………26
3.4.2 取樣時脈偏移(Sampling Clock Offset, SCO) ………………………27
第四章 多輸入多輸出正交分頻系統之時變通道估測與信號偵測器…….……28
4.1 簡介……………………………………………………………………..…28
4.2 多輸入多輸出(MIMO)系統介紹 ……………………………………..…29
4.3 時變通道的載波間干擾(ICI)效應……………………………….…….…31
4.4 通道估測………………………………………………………….…….…33
4.4.1 時間軸方向遞回最小平方(RLS)通道追蹤估測………………33
4.4.2 Shift Invariant Property…………………………………………34
4.4.3 RLS 內插器………………………………………………….…35
4.4.4 排序選擇性係數調整……………………………………..……40
4.4.5 RLS 化簡…………………………………………………….…44
4.4.6 頻率軸方向通道內插器 ………………………………………45
4.5 ICI 係數近似……………………….…………………………………..…46
4.6 ICI 效應補償…………….…….…………………………………….……48
4.7 模擬結果……………………….……………………………………….…49
第五章 硬體設計與實現……….…………………………………………….……58
5.1 設計流程簡介………………………………………………………………..…58
5.2 電路架構設計……………………………………………………………..……59
5.2.1 資料緩衝記憶體(Data Buffer)與領航訊號攫取緩衝記憶體(Pilot Extraction Buffer) ……………………………………………………59
5.2.2 時間方向內插器(Time Domain Interpolator) ………………………60
5.2.3 頻率方向內插器(Frequency Domain Interpolator) …………………62
5.2.4 多輸入多輸出MIMO訊號偵測器……………………………….…63
5.2.5 ICI係數近似與載波間干擾消除(ICI Cancellation) …………..……65
5.2.6 排序選擇性純化訊號……………………………………………..…70
5.2.7 RLS可適性演算法………………………………………………..…71
5.3 定點數模擬…………………………………………………………………..…75
5.4 有限字長.…………………………………………………………………..…79
第六章 結論與展望……………………………………………………………..…82
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………..……83
參考文獻 [1] 3GPP TR 25.814 V7.1.0 (2006-09) (Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA)).
[2] 3GPP TS 36.211 V8.3.0 (2008-05) (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical Channels and Modulation).
[3] 3GPP TR 25.996 V7.0.0 (2007-06) (Spatial Channel Mode for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Simulations).
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IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 765-774, Mar.
2005.
[16] C. H. Hsiao, C. Y. Chen, T. D. Chiueh, “Design of a Dual-Mode Baseband Receiver for 802.11n and 802.16e MIMO OFDM/OFDMA,” in Proc. International Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test, pp. 331 – 334, April 2009.
[17] S. H. Chen, W. H. He, H. S. Chen and Y. Lee, “Mode detection, Synchronization and channel estimation for DVB-T OFDM Receiver,” in Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Global Communication Conference, vol. 5, Dec. 2003, pp. 2416–2420.
[18] C. H. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C. F. Wu, M. T. Shiue, C. K. Wang, “Cost Efficient FEQ Implementation for IEEE 802.16a OFDM Transceiver,” in Proc. International Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test, pp. 154 – 157, April 2009.
[19] Y. Jin, Z. Zheng, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, “Discussion of 3GPP LTE MIMO Signal Detecting Algorithms Based on QR Decomposition,” in Proc. IITA International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems Engineering, pp.191-194, 2009
指導教授 蔡佩芸(Pei-Yun Tsai) 審核日期 2010-5-11
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