博碩士論文 965404004 詳細資訊




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姓名 廖長彥(Chang-Yen Liao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 網路學習科技研究所
論文名稱 代理表現學習模式—以動物同伴為例
(The Delegated Performance Model of Learning— an Example of Animal Companions)
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摘要(中) 本論文發展「代理表現模式 (Delegated Performance Model)」以提供學生更多的學習機會,改善他們的學習成就並增強自信心,此模式分成準備與表現/競爭兩個階段。學生為了在表現/競爭階段建立認同,因此需在準備階段付出努力進行學習。具體來說,學生在準備階段訂下目標以達成他們的任務,然後在表現/競爭階段呈現出最好的表現或擊敗他們的對手以獲得自信心與自我認同。
本論文基於代理表現模式,設計二個應用「動物同伴 (animal companions)」的寵物養成於悅趣化學習環境,以整合三年級數學課程,發展出表現舞台與競爭舞台系統,並進行二個研究來評估模式,研究進行時間為期一年,研究對象為29名三年級學生,活動方式包括課後活動與家中的學習活動。本研究採用質量混合方式進行資料的收集與分析,包括學生系統使用的紀錄、教室觀察、學生訪談筆記和問卷,而分析則採用學習歷程分析與序列分析等方法。
研究一主要聚焦於表現舞台(即My-Pet-My-Quest系統),並檢視學生在此一悅趣化學習環境下的認知效能、情感經驗與學習行為模式。結果指出 1) 無論在學校或家中,學生皆能持續參與及維持數學任務的熟練與流暢; 2) 大多數的學生不僅能建立起自我效能,也能保持使用系統的投入度;3) 在學校與家中,學生使用系統的行為趨勢穩定且逐漸增加。
研究二主要評估競爭舞台(即My-Pet-Trainer系統)的效果,以鼓勵學生改善他們在準備階段的學習並增進學生努力行為。希冀透過動物同伴呈現學生學習並代替學生進行競爭,以連結努力與認同的關係。本研究透過現場觀察與個別訪談評估學生的使用效能。結果指出 1) 準備式競爭的方式能引導多數學生的數學學習與強化他們的學習行為;2) 大多數的學生能理解事先準備的意義。
本論文也討論代理表現模式對於學生在認知、情意與行為方面的影響,如:持續性學習、動機的自我調節和學習黏著性等。並且,本論文也進一步討論如何應用代理表現模式於悅趣化學習環境的設計,如:準備階段、表現/競爭階段、學生個別差異及如何結合遊戲元素與學習內容等考量。
此外,後續研究可從模式、應用與方法三方向進行。具體來說,應提供更多機會支持基於代理表現模式的學生學習;應支持關於代理表現模式的潛在價值,特別於學校、老師、學生與家長等方面;應明瞭學生在悅趣化學習環境中的學習模式以協助他們可能遭遇到的學習困難。
摘要(英) The objective of this dissertation is to develop a delegated performance model (DPM) that provides students with more opportunities to improve their learning achievement and also enhance their confidence. The DPM comprises two phases—preparative phase and performance/ competitive phase. In order to build identity in the performance/ competitive phase, students need to make efforts to set their goals, in particular, and accomplish their tasks, in the preparative phase first. And then they need to demonstrate their learning achievement, defeat the competitors, and gain confidence in the performance/ competitive phase.
This dissertation addresses two application studies of a pet-nurturing game environment by using the animal companions, integrated the third grade mathematics curriculum into a game-based learning environment, to develop the performance/ competitive stage based on the delegated performance model. Two evaluation studies were also conducted to assess the model respectively in an elementary after-school club and at students’ home of 29 third-grade students over a year. A mixed methodological approach for data collection and analysis was applied. Data collection is undertaken via system records, observation and interview comments, and questionnaires. Learning portfolio analysis and sequential analysis were used in this study.
Study 1 aims to examine students’ cognitive effectiveness, affective experience, and learning behavioral patterns in My-Pet-My-Quest (MPMQ) environment. The findings indicated that 1) students can continuously participate in math tasks and maintain the proficiency and fluency of math tasks in the MPMQ environment across school and home time; 2) the MPMQ environment supports students to build self-efficacy, and keeps them engagement in learning as well; 3) students’ learning behaviors tend to be stable and increase gradually.
Study 2 is designed to evaluate the effect of the competitive stage (My-Pet-Trainer system). The system encourages students to improve their learning in the preparative phase; the virtual pets represent the students’ profiles before the competitive phase in My-Pet-Trainer (MPT). This study adopts two phases to link efforts and identity. This study 2 evaluates the effectiveness of the MPT by three sets of field observations and interviews with individual students. The findings indicated that 1) the preparation-based competitive approach could guide most of the students in learning process and enhance their learning behaviors; 2) most students could understand the meaning of preparation-based competition.
This dissertation discussed the influences of delegated performance model for students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects, such as sustaining learning, self-regulation of motivation, and learning stickiness; this study further discussed the design of integration of delegated performance model in game-based learning environment, such as preparation, performance/ competitive game design, individual differences, and how to combine the game structure with learning contents.
Some implications for further studies are also suggested in three aspects: model, application, and method. In particular, the researchers should provide more opportunities for students’ learning based on the delegated performance model; the researchers should mark these potential values of the delegated performance model in the aspects of school, teachers, students, and parents; the researchers should understand the behavioral patterns among students in this game-based learning environment in order to scaffold their learning to overcome the difficulties.
關鍵字(中) ★ 代理表現模式
★ 競爭遊戲
★ 遊戲式學習舞台
★ 動物同伴
關鍵字(英) ★ delegated performance model
★ competitive games
★ game-based learning stage
★ animal companions
論文目次 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Objective 3
1.3 Organization 7
2. Foundation 9
2.1 Pet-oriented Digital Games 9
2.1.1 Commercial Pet-oriented Digital Games and Applied Strategies 9
2.1.2 Previous Educational Research on Animal Companion Systems 12
2.2 The Developmental Trajectory of the Learner Model 15
2.2.1 Open Learner Model 15
2.2.2 Active Open Learner Model 16
2.3 Previous Research on Educational Competitive Games 18
2.3.1 Educational Competitive Games 18
2.3.2 Three Main Strategies of Educational Competitive Games 21
3. Delegated Performance Model 25
3.1 Design principles 26
3.1.1 Preparative Phase as Backstage 26
3.1.2 Performance/ Competitive Phase as Frontstage 28
3.2 Implementing the Delegated Performance Model by Using Animal Companions 29
3.2.1 Using Animal Companions 29
3.2.2 The Design of Animal Companions based on Delegated Performance Model in Game-based Learning Environment 30
3.3 Animal Companion Stage Design 32
3.2.1 The Design of Backstage 34
3.2.2 The Design of Frontstage 35
4. Study 1: Preparation-before-Performance Stage 39
4.1. The Design of My-Pet-My-Quest 39
4.1.1 Virtual Character Design 40
4.1.2 Narrative Environment 42
4.1.3 Small Quests 44
4.2. Evaluation in My-Pet-My-Quest 46
4.2.1 Participants and Context 46
4.2.2 Procedure 47
4.2.3 Data Collection and Analysis 48
4.3. Findings of Study 1 54
4.3.1 Cognitive Effectiveness 55
4.3.2 Affective Experience 59
4.3.3 Learning Behavioral Patterns 63
4.4 Conclusions for Preparation-before-Performance 70
5. Study 2: Preparation-before-Competitive Stage 73
5.1 The Design of My-Pet-Trainer System 73
5.1.1 Symbiotic and Emotional Relationships 75
5.1.2 Mindset Preparation to Face Competition for the Open Learner Model 76
5.1.3 Game Environment and Features 77
5.2 Preliminary Evaluation in the My-Pet-Trainer 79
5.2.1 Participants 79
5.2.2 Procedure 79
5.2.3 Data Collection and Analysis 80
5.3 Findings of Study 2 81
5.3.1 Effectiveness of Usability 82
5.3.2 Affective Experience 84
5.4 Conclusions for Preparation-before-Competition 86
6. Discussions 87
6.1 The Influences of Delegated Performance Model for Students’ Learning 87
6.1.1 Sustaining Learning across Home and School Time 87
6.1.2 Successful Students as Sustain Motivation to Learn 88
6.1.3 Enhancing Learning Stickiness by Using Delegated Performance Model 89
6.2 The Design of Delegated Performance Model for Game-based Learning Environment 90
6.2.1 Consideration of Preparation Design 91
6.2.2 Consideration of Performance/ Competitive Design 92
6.2.3 Consideration for Individual Ability 93
6.2.4 Consideration of Combination: Game Structure and Learning Contents 94
7. Conclusions and Implications 97
7.1 Conclusions 97
7.2 Implications for Model, Application, and Method 98
7.2.1 Providing Preparation and Performance Opportunities of Students by Using Delegated Performance Model 98
7.2.2 Potential Values in Aspect of School, Teacher, Students, Parent 100
7.2.3 Understanding the Behavioral Patterns of Students in a Game-based Learning Environment 102
References 105
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指導教授 陳德懷(Tak-Wai Chan) 審核日期 2011-10-18
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