博碩士論文 965404601 詳細資訊




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姓名 雷貝利(Barry Lee Reynolds)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 再思非刻意字彙習得裡的字詞頻率:字形變化及多詞句型的影響
(Rethinking Frequency in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: The Effects of Word Form Variation and Multiword Patterns)
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摘要(中) 在語言習得的研究裡,有相當多的文獻支持著廣泛閱讀對第一語言 及第二語言學習者的詞彙學習是所助益的。再者,因為學習者所注意的是 閱讀的任務而非字彙的學習,透過廣泛閱讀的詞彙習得是非刻意的。近年 來已經相當多的廣泛閱讀研究探討各種不同變數在透過閱讀時的非刻意字 彙習得之效果為何。然而,這些研究卻留下兩個重要的語言習得議題尚待 探討。即尚未有研究探討目標字詞內的變化及/或字詞外的多詞句型變化是 否會影響透過閱讀的非刻意字彙習得。

本論文研究目的為探討某目標字的字形變化程度(即:無變化:no variation 、 曲 折 變 化 : inflectional variation 及 衍 生 變 化 : derivational variation)及目標字在多詞句型裡的出現是否會影響該目標字透過閱讀的非 刻意習得。兩組英語為母語人士及英語為外語學習者的受試者在兩星期裡 閱讀一本有假字的英文小說,名叫 The BFG。兩組受試者在閱讀過後,在 未被告知的狀況下接受兩種測驗(即字意回想翻譯及字意辨認選擇)。該兩 種測驗評量 49 個目標假字的習得,伴隨該測驗的是一份開放式回應反思問 卷。五星期過後,進行事後訪談來更深入瞭解以英語為第一語言及第二語 言受試者對本論文裡目標假字的感受為何。

結果發現第一語言及第二語言使用者有相當多重要的相同及不同之處 。事後訪談顯示,第一語言使用者不覺得假字是值得學習的,而第二語言 使用者在於他們是否能分辨假字及真實英文字是較不清楚的。此外,因為 習得結果不能完全歸因於透過閱讀的非刻意習得,從第一語言使用者控制 組的資料顯示,第一語言使用者實驗組的資料需要更謹慎解釋。在目標字 習得的資料裡發現,第一語言及第二語言使用者在字形分析上有所不同。 然而,第一語言及第二語言使用者於目標字習得在多詞句型裡卻是相同的 。

在兩種測驗裡,第二語言使用者在目標字習得結果的分析顯示,字形 變化及字詞頻率有交互作用的影響。在字意回想測驗裡,其資料顯示第二 語言使用者在字形變化為衍生變化時,其高頻目標字與低頻目標字的習得 有顯著差異。然而,在字意辨認選擇測驗裡,其資料顯示第二語言使用者 在字形變化為曲折變化及衍生變化時,其高頻目標字與低頻目標字的習得 皆有顯著差異。而第一語言使用者在兩種測驗裡的資料顯示,字形變化及 字詞頻率並無交互作用的影響。然而,兩種測驗皆顯示字形變化有相當顯 著的影響。在字意回想測驗裡,比起有曲折變化或延伸變化的目標字,第 一語言使用者習得較多無變化的目標字。而在字意辨認選擇測驗裡,比起 有曲折變化的目標字,第一語言使用者習得較多無變化或延伸變化的目標 字。

不論在何種測驗裡,比起未出現於多詞句型的目標字,兩組實驗組的 受試者皆習得較多出現在多詞句型裡的目標字。再者,第一語言及第二語 言使用者在字意辨認選擇測驗的表現裡顯示多詞句型與字詞頻率有交互作用的影響。出現在多詞句型及未出現在多詞句型的低頻字習得並無顯著差 異,然而,出現在多詞句型及未出現在多詞句型的高頻字習得卻有顯著差 異。

綜合以上結果,本論文建議如下:一、當第二語言使用者所遇到的目 標字為曲折變化及延伸變化時,字詞頻率對其語言習得有關係。二、目標 字在多詞句型裡,尤其是對高頻字,對於第一語言及第二語言使用者的習 得則是有關係的。本論文將根據結果對於以下主題進行討論:非刻意習得 研究社群、語料庫分析、教學應用、教材發展及透過廣泛閱讀的第二語言 字彙習得。
摘要(英) Within language acquisition research there exists a substantial body of literature supporting extensive reading as a means of vocabulary growth for both L1 and L2 learners. Moreover, vocabulary acquisition through extensive reading has been considered as occurring incidentally because learners are focused on the task of reading instead of learning vocabulary. In recent years, a large number of extensive reading studies have been conducted investigating the effects of numerous variables on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary through reading. These experiments, however, leave two crucial language acquisition issues unaddressed. Namely, none of these studies investigated how word--­ internal form variation and/or word-­‐external multiword pattern variation affects the incidental acquisition of target vocabulary through reading.

The purpose of this dissertation, accordingly, is to investigate whether varying degrees of word form variation of target words (i.e., no variation, inflectional variation, and derivational variation) and the appearance of target word tokens in multiword patterns might affect the incidental acquisition of target vocabulary through reading. A group of L1 English-­‐speaking and L2 English-­‐speaking participants were given a copy of an unmodified English novel, The BFG, containing nonce words to read within two weeks. After reading, they were first given two surprise forms of assessment (meaning recall translation and meaning recognition multiple-­‐choice) measuring acquisition of 49 target nonce words followed by an open-­‐response reflective questionnaire. Five weeks later, post hoc interviews were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of both the L1 and L2-­‐English speaking participants’ perceptions of the nonce words used as target words in the dissertation research.

The results revealed various significant similarities and differences between L1 and L2 speakers. As shown through the post hoc interviews, the L1 speakers did not perceive nonce words as worth learning, whereas the L2 speakers were less clear on whether they gave nonce words a different status than real English words. Moreover, data collected from an L1 control group suggests any interpretation of the L1 experimental group data must be done cautiously since the acquisition results cannot be totally attributed to incidental acquisition through reading. Analysis of target word acquisition data in terms of word form variation illuminated differences between L1 and L2 speakers, while analysis of target word acquisition data in terms of multiword patterns highlighted similarities between L1 and L2 speakers.

Analysis of L2 speakers’ target word acquisition results as shown on both assessments found an interaction effect between word form variation and frequency. For the meaning recall data, L2 speakers showed a statistically significant difference in acquisition between lower and higher frequency target words that exhibited derivational variation in form. However, for the meaning recognition data, L2 speakers showed a statistically significant difference in acquisition between lower and higher frequency target words that exhibited inflectional and derivational variation in form. Analysis of L1 speakers’ target word acquisition results as shown on both assessments failed to find an interaction effect for word form variation and frequency. However, a statistically significant effect for word form variation was shown for both assessments. For the meaning recall, L1 speakers acquired more target words that did not vary in form than target words that exhibited inflectional or derivational variation in form. On the meaning recognition, L1 speakers acquired more target words that did not vary in form or exhibited derivational variation in form than target words that exhibited inflectional variation in form.

Both groups of experimental participants acquired more target words that appeared in multiword patterns than did not appear in multiword patterns, regardless of assessment. Furthermore, an interaction effect between patterns and frequency was shown for both L1 and L2 participants’ meaning recognition assessment results. While there was no significant difference in acquisition for lower frequency words that appeared in multiword patterns and lower frequency words that did not appear in multiword patterns, a significant difference in acquisition was shown between higher frequency words that appeared in multiword patterns and higher frequency words that did not appear in multiword patterns.

Taking all the results together, the present dissertation research suggests: (1) frequency matters more for L2 speakers when encountering target words whose tokens exhibit inflectional and derivational variation in form, and (2) the appearance of target words in multiword patterns, especially higher frequency target words, matters to L1 and L2 speakers. Implications of the present dissertation research for the incidental vocabulary acquisition research community, corpus-­‐derived analyses, teaching practices, materials development, and L2 vocabulary acquisition through extensive reading are discussed.
關鍵字(中) ★ 非刻意字彙習得
★ 廣泛閱讀
★ 字詞頻率
★ 字彙學
★ 曲折變化
★ 延伸變化
★ 多詞句型
★ 詞彙學
關鍵字(英) ★ incidental vocabulary acquisition
★ extensive reading
★ frequency
★ morphology
★ inflection
★ derivation
★ multiword patterns
★ phraseology
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iv
DEDICATION viii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS xvi
LIST OF TABLES xx
LIST OF FIGURES xxii
ABBREVIATIONS xxiv
CHAPTER ONE 1
Introduction 1
1.0 Preamble 1
1.1 Motivation and Purpose of the Research 2
1.2 Operationalization of Variables 4
1.2.1 Frequency 4
1.2.2 Word Form Variation 4
1.2.3 Multiword Patterns 5
1.3 Organization of the Dissertation 5
CHAPTER TWO 7
Review of the Literature 7
2.0 Introduction 7
2.1 Key Terms 9
2.1.1 Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition 9
2.1.2 Multiword Patterns 10
2.1.3 Word Form Variation 11
2.1.4 Probability of Acquisition 14
2.1.5 Vocabulary Growth 15
2.2 Incidental Acquisition of Discrete Target Vocabulary 17
2.2.1 First Language Vocabulary Growth 17
2.2.2 First Language Vocabulary Acquisition and Extensive Reading 18
2.2.3 Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition and Extensive Reading 21
2.2.4 Previous Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition 33
2.2.5 Differences in Reported Vocabulary Gains for First Language Speakers 35
2.2.6 Differences in Reported Vocabulary Gains for Second Language Speakers 37
2.2.7 Comments on Reported Differences in Vocabulary Gains 47
2.2.8 Frequency of Exposure Required for Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition 48
2.2.9 Comments on Previous Research Reporting Individual Target Word Data 50
2.3 Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition and Multiword Patterns 53
2.3.1 Contextual View of Language Learning 53
2.3.2 Previous Research on Incidental Acquisition and Multiword Patterns 55
2.3.3 Comments on Previous Multiword Pattern Studies 58
2.4 Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Framed by Psycholinguistic Theory 60
2.5 Comments on the Literature Review 67
CHAPTER THREE 69
Methodology 69
3.0 Introduction 69
3.1 Research Subjects 70
3.1.1 First Language English Speaking Participants 71
3.1.2 Second Language English Speaking Participants 72
3.2 Procedures 74
3.2.1 Vocabulary Size Test 77
3.2.2 Reading Task 83
3.2.3 Novels as Target Texts 88
3.2.4 Target Text Selection 91
3.2.4.1 Selection Criteria for Target Words 94
3.2.4.2 Coding for Target Word Frequency 95
3.2.4.3 Coding for Target Word Form Variation 96
3.2.4.4 Operationalization and Coding of “Patternedness” 97
3.2.5 Measurement Instruments 104
3.2.5.1 Meaning Recall 106
3.2.5.2 Meaning Recognition 108
3.2.6 Post Hoc Interviews 109
CHAPTER FOUR 111
Results 111
4.0 Introduction 111
4.1 Overall Vocabulary Assessment Results 113
4.1.1 Probability of Learning a Word from the Target Text 116
4.2 Reflective Questionnaire Results 118
4.2.1 The Study 118
4.2.2 The Novel 118
4.2.3 The Vocabulary 120
4.2.4 The Strategies 120
4.3 The Effect of Word Form Variation on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition 121
4.3.1 L1 Experimental Vocabulary Recall Assessment Results 122
4.3.2 L1 Experimental Vocabulary Recognition Assessment Results 123
4.3.3 L2 Experimental Vocabulary Recall Assessment Results 126
4.3.4 L2 Experimental Vocabulary Recognition Assessment Results 128
4.3.5 L1 Experimental and L2 Experimental Word Form Variation Comparison for Meaning Recall and Meaning Recognition 130
4.4 The Effect of Multiword Patterns on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition 132
4.4.1 L1 Experimental Vocabulary Recall Assessment Results 133
4.4.2 L1 Experimental Vocabulary Recognition Assessment Results 135
4.4.3 L2 Experimental Vocabulary Recall Assessment Results 137
4.4.4 L2 Experimental Vocabulary Recognition Assessment Results 138
4.4.5 L1 Experimental and L2 Experimental Multiword Pattern Comparison for Meaning Recall and Meaning Recognition 140
4.5 The Effect of Nonce Word Perception on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: L1 Participants 142
4.6 The Effect of Vocabulary Size on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: L2 Participants 144
4.7 Summary of the Results 144
CHAPTER FIVE 148
Discussion 148
5.0 Introduction 148
5.1 L1 Experimental and L2 Experimental Perceptions of Nonce Words 149
5.2 The Effect of Word Form Variation and Frequency 157
5.2.1 Interpretation of L1 Speakers’ Meaning Recall Results 158
5.2.2 Interpretation of L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recall Results 161
5.2.3 Comparison of L1 and L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recall Assessment 162
5.2.4 Interpretation of L1 Speakers’ Meaning Recognition Results 171
5.2.5 Interpretation of L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recognition Results 175
5.2.6 Comparison of L1 and L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recognition Assessment 177
5.3 The Effect of Multiword Patterns and Frequency 178
5.3.1 Interpretation of L1 Speakers’ Meaning Recall Results 179
5.3.2 Interpretation of L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recall Results 179
5.3.3 Comparison of L1 and L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recall Assessment 180
5.3.4 Interpretation of L1 Speakers’ Meaning Recognition Results 185
5.3.5 Interpretation of L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recognition Results 186
5.3.6 Comparison of L1 and L2 Speakers’ Meaning Recognition Results 187
5.4 The Effect of Vocabulary Size 188
5.5 Limitations 189
5.5.1 The Context of the Study 190
5.5.2 The Assessments 192
5.5.3 The Categories of Independent Variables 194
5.6 Implications for Research, Teaching, and Materials Development 195
5.6.1 Implications for Research 196
5.6.1.1 Use of Eye-Tracking in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Research 197
5.6.1.2 Linguistic Computing and Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition 199
5.6.1.3 Operationalization of Frequency 201
5.6.1.4 Individual Target Word Data 202
5.6.1.5 Post-hoc Interviews and Nonce Words 203
5.6.1.6 Vocabulary Assessment Design 205
5.6.1.7 Beyond Incidental Acquisition of Individual Target Words 206
5.6.2 Implications for Material Developers 207
5.6.3 Implications for Teaching 208
CHAPTER SIX 210
Conclusion 210
REFERENCES 217
APPENDICES 233
APPENDIX A: Reviewed Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Studies 234
APPENDIX B: A Clockwork Orange Nadsat Word Data 235
APPENDIX C: A Clockwork Orange Nadsat Frequency Comparison 241
APPENDIX D: “The Golden Fleece” Word Frequency Comparison 243
APPENDIX E: Mayor of Casterbridge Word Frequency Comparison 244
APPENDIX F: Native English-Speaking Participants’ Recruitment Letter 246
APPENDIX G: Native English-Speaking Participants’ Task Directions 247
APPENDIX H: Non-Native English Speaking Participants’ Task Directions 248
APPENDIX I: Reflective Questionnaire (English) 250
APPENDIX J: Reflective Questionnaire (Chinese) 251
APPENDIX K: Vocabulary Size Test 252
APPENDIX L: Vocabulary Size Test Answer Key 265
APPENDIX M: Made-up “Giant” word data from the novel The BFG 267
APPENDIX N: Meaning Recall Key 276
APPENDIX O: Meaning Recognition Key (English) 281
APPENDIX P: Meaning Recognition Key (Chinese) 287
APPENDIX Q: Assessment Results for Experimental and Control Groups 294
APPENDIX R: Participant Responses to Post Hoc Interviews 313
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指導教授 衛友賢(David Wible) 審核日期 2013-7-8
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