博碩士論文 966205001 詳細資訊




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姓名 魏妙珊(Miao-Shan Wei)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 水文與海洋科學研究所
論文名稱 三維海嘯湧潮對近岸結構物之影響
(Analysis on the 3D bores and their interaction with structures)
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摘要(中) 本文以潰壩湧潮 (dam-break bore) 研究海嘯波抵達近岸時之海嘯湧潮行為,以及其與近岸結構物之交互作用。在上溯期間,海嘯湧潮在近岸地區之行為與潰壩湧潮相似。為了研究湧潮的特性,使用數值和實驗室試驗產生一個潰壩湧潮,於壩體下游5.26m處設置一垂直方柱12*12cm。本研究求解不可壓縮流之三維 Navier-Stokes 方程式及大渦模擬 (Large-eddy Simulation, LES) 紊流模式,以體積分率法 (Volume of Fluid, VOF) 描述自由液面之運動,以有限體積法來離散網格,並以移動固體法 (Moving Solid Method, MSM) 模擬潰壩實驗時擋板抽取之運動。潰壩湧潮於長達14.72m之渠道內前進,以模擬海嘯波抵達近岸地區後所造成之類均勻 (Quasi-uniform) 海嘯湧潮。討論在潰壩湧潮產生時之初始波形、撞擊於結構物之力、波形、速度場、以及壓力場。結果顯示在潰壩湧潮所施於結構物之力主要與壩後水深 (impoundment)以及結構物面積有關,並敏感於壩前薄水墊厚度 (waterbed thickness) 以及壩體閘門之抽取速度。分析結果得知,要取得良好之數值模擬結果,閘門抽取速度以及薄水墊厚度需要精確描述。本研究發現,壩前薄水墊扮演潤滑之角色,有薄水墊之湧潮將產生較大之初期撞擊力。本研究亦發現潰壩湧潮撞擊至結構物時,將於結構物前方產生上下兩個方向相反之漩渦,其尺度與湧潮深度相仿。其飛濺之碎波高度亦相仿於湧潮深度。構物受力最大之區域並非落於結構物底端,而是位於二分之ㄧ平均湧潮高度,證實初期主破壞力為水體之動壓力,而非靜壓力。
摘要(英) When a tsunami wave propagates to the near-shore region, it transforms from a long wave to a tsunami bore and dissipates the energy in the coastal region. This is the most destructive period during the whole tsunami life. In order to have better understanding on the tsunami bore, this paper investigates the physical processes of a dam-break bore which has similar behavior as the tsunami bore. The bore-structure interaction is studied by placing a square cylinder at the downstream region. The numerical approach is adopted. We solve the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations with large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model. The free-surface kinematics and wave breaking are tracked by the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. The domain is discretized by the finite volume method (FVM) with an irregular mesh domain. The broken dam is modeled by the moving-solid algorithm (MSM) to detailed describe the lifting motion of the gate. The dam-break bore is marching in a channel with a length of 14.72 m to mimic the quasi-uniform tsunami bore. The numerical results are validated with the laboratory experiments in terms of the wave force acting on the square structure. We focuses the discussions on the effect of the impoundment height, waterbed lubrication, gate motion, free-surface profiles around the broken-dam and square cylinder, pressure profile around the cylinder. The results show that the impinging force on the cylinder is mainly determined by the impoundment, width of the channel, and the projected area of the structure. However, it also sensitive to the thickness of the waterbed and the lifting speed of the gate. When the bore is impinging with the cylinder structure, two eddies with inversed rotation direction will be generated right in front of the structure. Their length scales are similar to each other and close to the thickness of the incoming bore. The largest wave fore acting on the cylinder is not located at the bottom but at half of the incoming bore height. This indicates that the maximum impinging force is dominated by the hydrodynamic pressure. The waterbed plays a lubrication role which accelerates the bore speed and increases the wave force.
關鍵字(中) ★ 海嘯
★ 潰壩
★ 浪與結構物之交互作用
★ 移動固體法
★ 湧潮
★ 大渦模擬
★ 體積分率法
關鍵字(英) ★ wave-structure interaction
★ bore
★ dam-break
★ Tsunami
★ moving-solid
★ VOF
★ LES
論文目次 中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
致謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xii
符號說明 xiii
第一章 緒 論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究方法 2
1-3 本文目的 5
1-4 本文架構 5
第二章 文 獻 回 顧 7
2-1潰壩湧潮特性之實驗與理論回顧 8
2-2湧潮對結構物衝擊之實驗與理論回顧 11
2-3數值解運用 11
第三章 數值方法 18
3-1模式簡介 18
3-2紊流模式 18
3-3有限體積法 21
3-4流體體積法 22
3-5自由液面之建立 24
3-6二步法 24
3-7無滑動之穩定邊壁邊界條件 26
3-8滑動邊界條件 27
3-9移動固體法 27
3-10數值穩定度 31
3-11小結 32
第四章 數值模擬設定與流程 33
4-1實驗架設 33
4-2數值設置 42
4-3網格建構 42
4-4邊界條件 47
4-5初始條件 47
4-6影響流場因子之探討 47
4-6-1柱體與底床間距(Cl)之影響 48
4-6-2閘門速度(GS)之影響 50
4-6-3薄水墊(WT)之影響 52
4-6-4LES紊流模式(LES)之影響 52
4-6-5閘後水深(Ip)之影響 52
4-6-6渠道寬度(CW)之影響 52
4-6-7柱體尺寸(SW)之影響 53
第五章 結果與討論 54
5-1次影響因子之分析 54
5-1-1柱體與底床間距(Cl)之影響 54
5-1-2閘門速度(GS)之影響 56
5-1-3薄水墊(WT)之影響 59
5-1-4紊流模式LES之影響 66
5-1-5閘後水深(Ip)之影響 68
5-1-6渠寬(CW)之影響 70
5-1-7柱體尺寸(SW)之影響 70
5-2湧潮特性之分析 73
5-2-1湧潮初形成之流場 73
5-2-2湧潮行進之流場 83
5-2-3湧潮撞擊柱體之流場 87
5-2-4湧潮撞擊柱體之自由液面 94
5-2-5各個時間之自由液面 99
第六章 結論 101
6-1影響因子之分析 101
6-2湧潮特性之分析 102
6-3 未來發展與展望 103
參考文獻 104
附錄A 114
附錄B 118
附錄C 119
附錄D 122
附錄E 132
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指導教授 吳祚任(Tso-Ren Wu) 審核日期 2009-7-13
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