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姓名 楊芝瑜(Chih-yu Yang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 記憶廣度與語境效應對閱讀歧義句的影響:來自眼動的證據
(Memory Span and Contextual Effects on Lexical Ambiguity Resolution During Chinese Sentence Reading:Evidence from Eye Movements)
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摘要(中) 本研究藉由實驗材料進行語境位置、相對頻率以及語意關聯程度三個變項的操弄,並以中文閱讀廣度測驗做為工作記憶廣度的指標,以兩個實驗探討不同記憶廣度讀者閱讀不同類型歧義句時眼動型態的差異。實驗透過語境位置的操弄,探討支持非均勢多義詞某一意義的偏向性語境位置,其在多義詞之前或之後對讀者理解的影響。若偏向性語境在前可能加快意義被激發的速度,若偏向性語境在後,多義詞的多重意義則會因相對頻率、語意關聯程度而有不同的激發水準。因此,本研究亦藉由多義詞的主、次意義,以及主、次意義間語意關聯程度,了解多義詞的相對頻率及語意關聯程度對歧義詞詞彙辨識的影響。此外,工作記憶容量亦是影響歧義句閱讀的重要因素,當多義詞多重意義皆被激發時,讀者需要將訊息保留在工作記憶中,以進行語意的整合。工作記憶容量大者有較多的認知資源來同時處理及儲存訊息,將多個意義保留於工作記憶中而易於順利整合;工作記憶容量小者,當訊息量超過所能負荷的工作記憶容量時,則需要較多的認知資源以進行訊息整合。
本研究發現語境位置、相對頻率以及語意關聯程度會影響中文讀者多義詞詞義的擷取。此三個因素對讀者閱讀歧義句的影響情形,會因讀者本身工作記憶容量大小的不同,呈現出不同的閱讀型態。本研究主要發現,語境位置在歧義句閱讀中扮演重要角色,當偏向性語境在前時,所有的讀者皆不受相對頻率及語意關聯程度的影響,但是,當偏向性語境在後時,兩類型的讀者相比,工作記憶容量大的讀者依然不受影響,但工作記憶容量小的讀者受相對頻率及語意關聯程度的影響程度較大。根據研究所得結果建議,可藉由前語境的效果編寫閱讀材料,降低讀者工作記憶上的負荷,使讀者有較好的閱讀效率。
摘要(英) This study examined the effects of using context to solve the lexical ambiguity in reading sentences by recording participants’ eye movement. Variables such as the frequency (dominate and subordinate), the degree of meaning relatedness (high and low) of the ambiguous word, the location of disambiguating context (preceding and following context) and the participants’ memory span were included in the study. Chinese Reading Span Test developed by Hue (1996) was administered to distinguish the memory span of participants. The purpose is to investigate how memory span influences reader’s reading while they process the ambiguous word in a context supported sentence.
This study focused on the influence of the location of disambiguating context in ambiguous sentences reading. If an ambiguous word is at the second part of the sentence (context-before condition), the preceding context serves as a prime to activate the meaning of the word. If an ambiguous word is at the first part of a sentence (context-after condition), multiple meanings of the word will be activated at different levels depending on the frequency and the degree of meaning relatedness of the ambiguous word. It was hypothesized that readers with low working memory span would suffer in the context-after condition.
The results of the study provided experimental support for the location of disambiguating context, the frequency and degree of meaning relatedness of ambiguous words affected the reading processing of ambiguous sentences, and also revealed the different process depending on the individual’s working memory capacity.
The location of disambiguating context plays an important role in ambiguous sentences reading. In the context-before condition, all participants were not affected by the frequency and degree of meaning relatedness of ambiguous words. However, in the context-after condition, low working memory span readers were more affected by the frequency and degree of meaning relatedness when compared to high span readers, they fixated longer on disambiguating region. Based on these results, researcher suggested text writing to take advantage of the contextual location clues to help reading, especially for low memory span readers.
關鍵字(中) ★ 工作記憶
★ 詞彙歧義消解
★ 多義詞
★ 眼動型態
關鍵字(英) ★ polysemy
★ lexical ambiguity resolution
★ working memory
★ eye movements
論文目次 第一章緒論
第一節研究背景與研究動機………………………………………………1
第二節研究目的與研究問題………………………………………………5
第三節名詞釋義……………………………………………………………6
第四節研究限制……………………………………………………………8
第二章文獻探討
第一節歧義句的閱讀理解歷程……………………………………………9
第二節歧義詞多重意義間的語意關聯程度對歧義消解的影響………...10
第三節詞彙歧義消解理論與相關研究…………………….…………..…14
第四節工作記憶對歧義消解歷程的影響與相關研究……………...……23
第三章研究方法、結果與討論
第一節實驗一………………………………………………………………27
第二節實驗二………………………………………………………………58
第四章綜合討論…………………………………………………………..71
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………….……75
附錄
附錄一統計摘要表 …………………………………………………………78
附錄二中文詞自由聯想反應問卷……………………………..………… .91
附錄三中文詞語意差異量表 …..………..…………………………………95
附錄四中文多義詞語意評定量表 ………………………………………..100
附錄五實驗一材料…………………………………………………..……105
附錄六實驗二材料…………………………………………………….….113
參考文獻 參考文獻
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指導教授 柯華葳(Hwa-wei Ko) 審核日期 2010-7-27
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