博碩士論文 971407003 詳細資訊




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姓名 張秀美(Hsiu-Mei Chang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 線上小組推進探究的關鍵時刻
(Critical Moments towards the Productive Discussion in Online Group Learning)
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摘要(中) 數位合作學習領域長期以來的一個核心議題是:學習在哪裡發生?(Where does learning take place? )。本文聚焦於指認線上對話共構過程的關鍵時刻(critical moments)。為了深度剖析這個議題,進行個案研究,分析一個成功完成六週科學探究任務的線上小組,以發現科學探索和參與者互動兩造的交互關係與發展軌跡,從而捕捉共構發生的學習圖像,特別聚焦在推動探究進展的關鍵時刻。

本文使用一套研究方法來指認關鍵時刻。本文定義的關鍵時刻,參與者集體的探究具有漸入佳境的有效活動,能夠幫助達成小組最終探究目標。社會互動分析有四個要點:整體過程、情境脈絡、時間和相關。具體分析作法如下:首先以整體合作過程中的情境脈絡為基底,揀選集體推動探究進展的重要對話片段;接著,在這些重要對話片段中,分析具有緊密對話接應關係的「聚焦事件」;繼之,以回溯時間的方向,指認過去、現在和未來三個階段的「發展演變」;最後,並找出參與者互為主體性的七個基本「互動組件」、及積極有效的互動「轉折」等。這四個分析要項是由一系列連續相關的對話文章中進行指認關鍵時刻。

由上述定義與分析作法獲得三個研究結果:一、因應情境當下的在地需求,發展出推進小組科學探究的關鍵時刻:包含小組行動秩序的建立、共同創造的成就、集體對話的開展、團隊分工的湧現,讓參與者相互串聯與施展不同能力而投身於組內探究;二、角色扮演與參與:隨著過程情節的發展,參與者投身於組內探究有不同的參與姿態,如積極活躍的學習者(促進者)化為帶領者、低知識能力的學習者(定期發言者)化為具有影響貢獻的參與者、和潛水的學習者化為深化思維者、學輔鷹架的淡入與淡出等;三、描繪出實踐中的集體性互動:接力對話、集體洗版面、探路與補給等相互支援的互動,以共同完成組內探究。

最後,本文有一些具體貢獻:首先指認動態性過程的關鍵時刻,並擴充關鍵時刻的傳統認定;本文將整體過程的情境脈絡(situated-context)納入分析作法,在實踐(practice)與學習的不可切割現象中,勾勒出小組對話的在地學習面貌;也細膩的審視參與者的動態性角色扮演與參與貢獻,並精緻化參與貢獻的判定準則;同時帶出學輔鷹架和同儕協力的不同互動現象;最後,由關鍵時刻的指認經驗及研究結果中,提供一些教學啟發給予現場教學實務。
摘要(英) A core issue in Computer-supported collaborative learning is “Where does learning take place?” Along with the current trend in CSCL, this study focused on the learning process of an online scientific inquiry-based group to identify the “critical moments” of promoting the group inquiry progress among the group members. By analyzing the case study from an online community (LAIN) is to explore the picture of a small group knowledge construction. We analyzed the log data of the group discussion to understand the relationship between the development of scientific concept and the group members’ dynamic interaction in order to identify the critical moments.

This study tries to develop an analytic approach to re-identify the critical moments. The definition of the “critical moments” in our study is getting better condition to advance the group progress for achieving the final group inquiry goal. By comparing with the traditional approach, our approach focuses on the “whole” situated-context and dynamics process of the group discussion rather than a single “part” during the group discussion, and shows the unit of analysis in “a larger context” or “a series of the related events” rather than in some “small pieces” or “isolated incidents”. The main points in this analysis are including the “from beginning to end” process, situated-context, time dimension, and relevance. The analytic steps in this study are as the followings: first, to pick the sequential episodes of promoting the inquiry progress is under the situated-context perspective; then, to capture the subject matter, to track the evolution of the group discussion, to recognize a set of intersubjective-interactive components and the positive turns in the group members’ close discussion. It is worth noting that we analyzed the above-mentioned-analytic steps in the cumulative composition of interpretative acts.

Identified the critical moments by the above definition and analysis approach has the following findings. The results identify four critical moments, including to establish the group norms, to create the mutual accomplishment, to make the art of collective dialogue, and to develop the division of labors in a group. At the same time, we could reconsider the dynamic changes of the role play (for example, positive learner, lurker, or mentor), rejudge individual’s contribution among the group members, refresh the definition of the “collective interaction”, and show the interaction between the mentor’s scaffolding and the peer’s collaboration. Finally, the collective interaction among participants: the group members developed the partial and complementary activity to advance the group progress.

Based on the situated-context perspective, we could describe and interpret each posting of the group discussion in the local practice meaning and reconsider the contribution of postings in the online knowledge co-construction. Our study also found that the group members discussed with each other in the intersubjective interaction is the key to promote the inquiry-based learning quality. In contrast to tradition approaches, this study expanded the picture of an online group knowledge co-construction. So some methodological considerations about online-group knowledge co-construction were discussed.
關鍵字(中) ★ 角色參與
★ 知識共構
★ 研究方法
★ 情境脈絡
★ 線上小組學習
★ 關鍵時刻
關鍵字(英) ★ role participation
★ knowledge co-construction
★ research methodology
★ situated-context
★ online group learning
★ critical moments
論文目次 第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究源起………………………………………………………………1
第二節 線上環境的小組科學探究…………………………………2
第三節 田野啟發………………………………………………………………4
第四節 切入觀點………………………………………………………………6
第五節 研究問題………………………………………………………………8
第六節 名詞定義………………………………………………………………8


第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………11
第一節 對話中的互動……………………………………………………11
第二節 參與者角色…………………………………………………………15
一、教師角色………………………………………………15
二、同儕角色………………………………………………17
第三節 關鍵時刻…………………………………………………………………19
一、跨越不同的屬性……………………………………20
二、頻率的分水嶺…………………………………………21
三、論點的分合……………………………………………21
四、論點的改變……………………………………………22
五、共有資源的建立……………………………………22
六、再現…………………………………………………………23
七、異常…………………………………………………………24
第四節 分析作法…………………………………………………………………25
一、對話中的互動分析………………………………26
二、「關鍵時刻」的分析作法…………………29
第五節 分析的理論框架……………………………………………………34
一、實踐社群的內涵……………………………………34
二、實踐的湧現面貌……………………………………36
三、對話實踐…………………………………………………39
四、身分角色…………………………………………………41
五、關鍵時刻…………………………………………………42


第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………………45
第一節 研究情境…………………………………………………………………46
一、活動場域…………………………………………………46
二、活動招募…………………………………………………48
三、活動內容與流程……………………………………50
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………………54
第三節 資料蒐集…………………………………………………………………60
一、線上田野的紀錄資料…………………………60
二、田野筆記………………………………………………64
第四節 資料分析…………………………………………………………………65
一、關鍵時刻的分析組成…………………………65
二、關鍵時刻的具體操作分析……………………71
三、關鍵時刻的實例……………………………………100
第五節 研究信效度……………………………………………………………102
一、科學認知發展的編碼分析……………………102
二、參與者互動的編碼分析………………………103
三、關鍵時刻的指認分析…………………………103


第四章 研究結果………………………………………………………………105
第一節 小組行動秩序的建立…………………………………………107
一、同步對話的建立…………………………………107
二、對話空間的劃分…………………………………115
三、一致性行動的聯合……………………………117
四、小結………………………………………………………124
第二節 共同創造的成就…………………………………………………124
一、主流價值的採用…………………………………125
二、共同資源的匯集與運用………………………130
三、「共同做決定」的聚集………………………137
四、小結………………………………………………………142
第三節 集體對話的開展…………………………………………………143
一、帶路與跟隨的合夥……………………………143
二、混沌與停滯的等待……………………………149
三、從打轉到推進的發展…………………………155
四、不同觀點的查核考驗…………………………160
五、小結………………………………………………………165
第四節 團隊分工的湧現…………………………………………………165
一、分工負責與互惠………………………………165
二、問題的回饋與調整……………………………170
三、探路與補給的並行……………………………176
四、小結………………………………………………………180


第五章 討論與結論……………………………………………………………181
第一節 理論啟發與延伸……………………………………………………182
一、實踐中的關鍵時刻………………………………182
二、描繪實踐的集體性………………………………184
第二節 研究方法的新切入………………………………………………185
第三節 共構面貌的新理解………………………………………………187
一、積極應變而成的關鍵時刻…………………188
二、互為主體性對話接應…………………………190
三、同儕角色貢獻與流轉…………………………192
四、學輔鷹架和同儕協力的力道不一……194
第四節 研究反思………………………………………………………………198
第五節 教學意涵………………………………………………………………200
第六節 總結………………………………………………………………………202


參考文獻………………………………………………………………………………205
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英文參考文獻
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指導教授 陳斐卿(Fei-Ching Chen) 審核日期 2014-7-21
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