博碩士論文 973202045 詳細資訊




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姓名 楊政錤(Jeng-Cji Yang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 鋪面缺陷影像辨識系統應用於路網檢測之研究
(Study of Pavement Distress Image Detection system Applied to Network-Level Measurement)
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摘要(中) 台灣地區整體社會發展及經濟蓬勃,早已屬於世界上公認之先進國家,因此台灣地區公路系統,包含高速公路、快速道路、省、縣、鄉道、市區道路、產業道路…等,分級完善、功能完備之路網系統,因此在鋪面維護管理系統觀念下,可使政府主管機關有效監控道路各類破壞與各種狀況,提供高品質的服務水準來服務大眾。國內的學術單位已有多篇研究評估將PMS 應用於高速公路及縣市政府,未來更將評估廣泛應用於各級道路上,然而台灣地區地狹人稠,且由於地理環境關係,每年降雨皆集中在五、六月梅雨季與七、八、九月的颱風季節,伴隨而來的豪大雨使柔性鋪面損壞嚴重,加上以出口經濟導向目的,超載貨車車流量頗大,對於鋪面破壞程度甚巨,使原本破損不堪之路面更加惡化,並且台灣地區機車普及率遠比其他國家來的高,然而對於機車騎士安全性卻尚缺完善考量,令近年道路安全國賠案件成為國家經濟負擔之一,交通事故層出不窮更人擔憂,因此確實掌握鋪面狀況,選定路面維修順序更顯為重要。
本研究目的以鋪面狀況指標(Pavement Condition Index, PCI)來評級道路品質,但由於PCI評級項目過多且判定複雜易造成範圍以及嚴重程度上的誤判,於是本研究主要應用數位線掃瞄照相機(Digital Line Scan Camera)架設於自行研發之檢測車上,透過電腦系統以數位影像技術將鋪面影像呈現並儲存資料,進而使電腦判斷破壞類型、嚴重程度及劣化範圍,減少人員主觀判斷上的誤差,完成一套人性化、便利及迅速的系統,以取代過去人工實地勘查和量測。
摘要(英) Taiwan’’s overall social development and economic prosperity have long been recognized as part of the world’’s advanced countries. The road system in Taiwan, including highways, highway, provincial, county, township roads, urban roads, industrial road ... and so on, provides perfect classification and complete functions of the network system, so under the concept of pavement maintenance management system will enable government agencies to effectively monitor all kinds of destruction and all kinds of road conditions, and providing high quality service standards to serve the public. There are many studies have assessed the PMS used in highways and county and city governments, will assess the future more widely used in all levels of a road. Because of the geological conditions in Taiwan and each rainfall are concentrated in Rainy season and the typhoon season. This heavy rain causes the flexible pavement damage. As a result of the purpose of export-oriented economy, overloaded truck traffic flow considerably, make pavement extent of the damage. So that the road had deteriorated beyond the point of aggravating. The motorcycle penetration rate in Taiwan than in other countries to high, but for the safety of motorcyclists still lack consideration. In recent years, traffic accident has became one of the national economy burden. So really controlling the pavement condition and selecting the order of road maintenance is more important.
Purpose of this study is rating the quality of the road by Pavement Condition Index, PCI, but determines the PCI is so complex that it could easily lead to a serious extent, scope and misjudgment. Therefore this study using digital line scan camera set up in own R & D test car. The computer system and digital image technology render and store information on pavement images, and then the computer will automatically determine the imperfection including the type, severity, and deterioration. It could reduce the error of subjective judgments and offer a personalized, convenient and rapid system to replace the previous manual field surveys and measurements.
關鍵字(中) ★ 鋪面狀況指標
★ 鋪面維護管理系統
★ 數位線掃描照相機
關鍵字(英) ★ Pavement Management System
★ Pavement Condituin Index
★ Digital Line Scan Camera
論文目次 圖目錄 ...................................................................................................................................................IX
表目錄 ................................................................................................................................................. XII
第一章緒論 ........................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 研究動機 .......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 研究目的 .......................................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 研究範圍 .......................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 研究方法與內容 ............................................................................................................................... 5
1.5 研究流程 .......................................................................................................................................... 6
第二章文獻回顧 ................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 國外柔性鋪面狀況指標 .................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 鋪面狀況指標(Pavement Condition Index, PCI)[1] ............................................................ 7
2.1.2 鋪面狀況評級(Pavement Condition Rating, PCR)[4] ....................................................... 13
2.1.3 統一裂縫指標(Unified Condition Index, UCI)................................................................... 15
2.1.4 通用裂縫指標(Universal Condition Index, CI)[6,7,8] ....................................................... 16
2.1.5 鋪面破壞資料(Distress Index, DI)[9] ................................................................................ 17
2.1.6 鋪面表面指標(Surface Rating, SR)[10,11] ......................................................................... 19
2.1.7 其他鋪面狀況指標 ............................................................................................................. 20
2.2 國內柔性鋪面狀況指標 .................................................................................................................. 21
2.2.1 鋪面狀況品質指標(Pavement Condition Quality Index, PCQI)........................................ 21
2.2.2 國內其他鋪面狀況指標 ...................................................................................................... 23
2.3 國外自動化檢測設備 ...................................................................................................................... 25
2.3.1 The PCES System ................................................................................................................. 26
2.3.2 The Swedish PAVUE System ................................................................................................. 28
2.3.3 Laser RST 型道安智慧車(Research Laser RST) ................................................................. 30
2.3.4 The Swiss CREHOS ............................................................................................................. 31
2.3.5 VCrack ................................................................................................................................ 32
2.3.6 Digital Highway Data Vehicle (DHDV)[26] ........................................................................ 35
2.3.7 ARAN&WiseCrax ................................................................................................................. 36
2.3.8 Mitsubishi Road Surface Survey System .............................................................................. 38
2.3.9The Komatsu System[29] ...................................................................................................... 40
2.3.10 R-TEC System[27] ............................................................................................................. 41
2.3.11 道路檢測車(CICS 路況快速檢測系統) .......................................................................... 42
2.3.12 Hawkeye ............................................................................................................................. 44
2.3.13 ICC 檢測車 ........................................................................................................................ 45
2.3.14 各國檢測車比較表 ........................................................................................................... 46
2.4 國內鋪面狀況調查發展 .................................................................................................................. 46
2.5 鋪面狀況品質規範 ......................................................................................................................... 51
2.5.1 小型試驗與評估 ................................................................................................................. 51
2.5.2 AASHTO PP44[42] .............................................................................................................. 52
2.6 道路國賠案件 ................................................................................................................................. 58
第三章鋪面影像檢測系統 .................................................................................................................. 62
3.1 影像擷取設備 ................................................................................................................................ 62
3.1.1 線掃描照相機輸出型式 ..................................................................................................... 65
3.1.2 線掃描照相機同步及曝光模式 ......................................................................................... 69
3.1.3 其他相關參數及計算 ......................................................................................................... 71
3.2 鏡頭 ................................................................................................................................................ 73
3.3 輔助光源 ........................................................................................................................................ 78
3.4 測距儀 ............................................................................................................................................ 84
3.5 其他設備 ........................................................................................................................................ 86
3.6 影像辨識方法 ................................................................................................................................ 89
3.6.1 影像前處理......................................................................................................................... 89
3.6.2 SVM 破壞分類 ..................................................................................................................... 95
3.6.3 裂縫辨識 .......................................................................................................................... 100
第四章路面狀況調查程序 ................................................................................................................ 109
4.1 破壞項目調查 ............................................................................................................................... 109
4.1.1 路面破壞分類 ................................................................................................................... 109
4.1.2 破壞成因 .......................................................................................................................... 113
4.2 誤差來源 ...................................................................................................................................... 117
4.3 鋪面檢測車程序 ........................................................................................................................... 122
4.3.1 外業操作程序 ................................................................................................................... 123
4.3.2 內業軟體操作程序 ........................................................................................................... 132
4.4 人工檢測程序 ............................................................................................................................... 135
4.4.1 鋪面破壞調查內容 ........................................................................................................... 135
4.4.2 鋪面破壞調查程序 ........................................................................................................... 136
4.4.3 鋪面破壞調查表格 ........................................................................................................... 137
4.4.4 內頁PCI 計算軟體 .......................................................................................................... 138
第五章檢測數據分析 ........................................................................................................................ 142
5.1 坑洞嚴重程度判斷依據 ................................................................................................................ 142
5.2 桃園縣鄉道狀況 ........................................................................................................................... 147
5.3 實際PCI 與自動辨識PCI 比對 ................................................................................................... 148
5.4 實際PCI 與半自動PCI 比對 ....................................................................................................... 150
5.5 自動辨識效益 ............................................................................................................................... 152
第六章結論與建議 ............................................................................................................................ 153
6.1 結論 .............................................................................................................................................. 153
6.2 建議 .............................................................................................................................................. 154
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指導教授 林志棟(Jyh-Dong Lin) 審核日期 2010-7-28
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