博碩士論文 973202052 詳細資訊




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姓名 王俊堯(Chun-yao Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 低放射性廢棄物最終處置回填材料於近場環境下之長期穩定性研究
(Long-term stability of backfill material in the near field of a low-level radwaste disposal site)
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摘要(中) 本研究將以台東樟原村日興土與美國懷俄明州BH膨潤土,混合台東地區硬頁岩碎石級配料,調配成不同黏土-碎石含量之回填材料,改變回填材料含水量與調整最大碎石粒徑,進行基本材料性質、改良式夯實、自由回脹應變、定體積回脹壓力、水力傳導度等試驗,並探討其近場環境可能影響回填材料功能的各種因素,包含在混凝土工程障壁與封閉用回填材料界面處,以電滲加速試驗來了解混凝土對回填材料性質的改變,此外,低放廢棄物處置場場址鄰近濱海地區的可能性很高,處置場封閉後勢必會遭受地下水入侵之影響,調配含鹽溶液進行海水入侵到處置場之近場環境的模擬,對回填材料之工程性質與功能產生之影響。最後依據試驗結果歸納其功能特性,了解回填材料於近場環境下的長期穩定性,另一方面掌握本土回填材料之工程性質,與國際間使用之回填材料加以比較。
試驗結果顯示(1)BH 膨潤土回填材料於改變回填材料含水量與調整最大碎石粒徑下之回脹潛能皆遠高於日興土回填材料;(2)日興土與BH 膨潤土回填材料於含鹽溶液中回脹應變量均較在純水溶液中要大幅降低;(3)在電滲加速試驗後續分析中,由離子定量與回脹潛能試驗得知,二種膨潤土回填材料隨電滲時間越長,回脹量越低,且越靠近混凝土接觸面之回填材料,其鈣/鈉離子比值差距越大;( 4 ) 膨潤土回填材料隨電滲時間越長,其越靠近混凝土接觸面之回填材料pH值越低,距離越遠pH值越高;( 5 ) 二種膨潤土回填材料在電滲加速試驗後續分析TGA及XRD 中,曲線差異大部份都不明顯。
摘要(英) Zhishin clay (日興土) and Black Hill bentonite are used as raw clay materials in this study. These clays are mixed with Taitung area hard shale to produce the backfill material for low-level radioactive wastes disposal site. Engineering characteristics and barrier functions of backfill materials including compaction, free swelling, swelling pressure, and hydraulic conductivity are obtained in the laboratory for evaluation.
In order to have improved uniformity, the maximum size of the crushed gravel is reduced to 4.75 mm and 2.36 mm to produce the backfill materials. The interaction between concrete barrier and the backfill material is simulated by an accelerated migration test to investigate the effect of concrete on the expected functions of backfill material. Saline water intrusion into the near-field of disposal site is simulated to understand the engineering properties of the backfill material in such scenarios.
The results show that the reduction in maximum size of crushed gravel produces similar maximum unit weight, higher swelling potential and reduced hydraulic conductivity. Backfill material prepared using BH bentonite has higher swelling potential than that using Zhishin clay. The use of saline water as intruding solution into the backfill material results in a decrease in the swelling potential and some increase in hydraulic conductivity.
Finally, the interface between the concrete barrier and backfill material was simulated by an accelerated electro-osmosis test. The results show some decrease in swelling potential for the backfill material near the interface. Also, backfill material close to the contact of the concrete exhibits larger change in the ratio of calcium/sodium concentration, due to the release of calcium ions from the concrete barrier.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電滲加速試驗
★ 海水入侵
★ 回填材
★ 回脹潛能
★ 低放廢棄物
關鍵字(英) ★ low-level radioactive waste
★ backfill material
★ swelling behavior
論文目次 摘 要 I
Abstract II
致謝 II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究方法與範圍 2
1.4試驗流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 低放廢棄物處置概念 5
2.1.1 低放廢棄物最終處置 5
2.1.2 低放廢棄物最終處置多重障壁概念 8
2.1.3 國內低放最終處置場設計概念 9
2.2 低放回填材料所需具備之功能 10
2.3 回填材料之體積穩定性 11
2.3.1 膨潤土礦物之性質與構造 11
2.3.2 膨潤土水化機理 13
2.3.3 分散與絮凝結構 14
2.4 黏土之回脹潛能 15
2.4.1 回脹發生之機制 15
2.4.2 回脹行為模式 16
2.4.3 影響回脹之因素 18
2.5 水力傳導度理論 23
2.5.1 達西定律(Darcy’s Law) 23
2.5.2 達西定律之適用性 23
2.5.3 影響水力傳導度的因素 24
2.6 回填材料與混凝土接觸交互作用 28
2.6.1 離子交換 28
2.6.2 離子交換之因素 30
第三章 研究計畫 37
3.1試驗材料 37
3.1.1 膨潤土材料 37
3.1.2 粒料硬頁岩 38
3.2材料基本土壤力學性質分析方法 38
3.2.1 自然含水量 39
3.2.2 比重試驗 39
3.2.3 粒徑分析試驗 39
3.2.4 阿太堡限度試驗 39
3.2.5活性 39
3.3材料準備 39
3.4改良式夯實試驗 41
3.5回脹試驗 42
3.5.1 回脹試驗方法選擇 42
3.5.2 回脹試體製作 42
3.5.3 自由回脹應變試驗 45
3.5.4 定體積回脹壓力試驗 47
3.6 水力傳導性質量測 50
3.6.1 試驗方法選擇 50
3.6.2 剛性壁水力傳導度試驗 51
3.6.2.3 試驗設計 54
3.7模擬處置場之近場環境 56
3.7.1 海水入侵 56
3.7.2 試驗方法 57
3.7.3 電滲加速試驗(回填材料與混凝土接觸交互作用) 57
3.7.4 電滲加速試驗土壤後續分析 62
3.8試驗總整理 67
第四章 試驗結果與分析 68
4.1基本材料性質分析 68
4.2 夯實特性 69
4.2.1 改變回填材料最大碎石粒徑級配對夯實特性之影響 70
4.3回脹潛能 73
4.3.1 自由回脹應變 73
4.3.2 定體積回脹壓力 78
4.4水力傳導度 83
4.4.1 改變回填材料含水量之水力傳導度 83
4.4.2 改變最大粒徑碎石級配之水力傳導度 88
4.5含水狀態及最大粒徑對回填材料之影響 92
4.5.1 含水狀態OMC與OMC-3%對回填材料之影響 92
4.5.2 最大粒徑對回填材料之影響 93
4.6模擬處置場海水入侵之效應 94
4.6.1 自由回脹應變 94
4.6 2 定體積回脹壓力 97
4.6.3 剛性壁水力傳導度試驗 99
4.7回填材料與混凝土接觸交互作用之分析 103
4.7.1 離子定量 103
4.7.2 回脹潛能 107
4.7.3 pH值 109
4.7.4 熱重分析(TGA) 111
4.7.5 X光繞射分析(XRD) 115
第五章 結論與建議 119
5.1 結論 119
5.2 建議 121
參考文獻 122
附錄 130
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指導教授 黃偉慶(Wei-hsing Huang) 審核日期 2011-1-17
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