博碩士論文 973206025 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:9 、訪客IP:3.85.245.126
姓名 許博閔(Po-min Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 鹿林山大氣背景站不同氣團氣膠光學特性
(The atmospheric aerosol optical property for different air masses arriving Lulin Atmosphere Background Station)
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摘要(中) 大氣氣膠光學效應會影響地球接收和反射太陽輻射,因此,觀測大氣氣膠光學特性是評估全球暖化的重要項目。台灣中部鹿林山(2,862 m a.s.l.)大氣背景站適合觀測東亞背景大氣氣膠的光學特性,雖然鹿林山屬於高山背景測站,但是仍會受到亞洲大陸污染傳送與春季中南半島生質燃燒的長程傳輸污染影響。本文分析2008年10月至2010年4月鹿林山受到不同氣團的氣膠光學特性,研究氣膠粒徑分布與氣膠化學成分變化對氣膠光學特性的影響,以及利用模式推估不同氣團乾氣膠直接輻射效應,並且與實際大氣氣膠直接輻射效應進行比較。
  鹿林山接收到的氣團主要為源區生質燃燒(BB)、源區非生質燃燒(SNBB)、自由大氣(FT)、人為污染(Anthropogenic)等四種類型。源區生質燃燒(BB)類型的氣團經過長程傳輸帶來高濃度的硫酸鹽氣膠與碳成分氣膠,PM10氣膠散光係數和吸光係數分別為127.2 Mm-1與24.6 Mm-1;源區非生質燃燒(SNBB)類型的氣團是長程傳輸的背景濃度,氣膠散光係數和吸光係數分別為23.2 Mm-1與3.1 Mm-1;自由大氣(FT)類型的氣團是代表東亞背景大氣的特性,氣膠散光係數和吸光係數分別為25.0 Mm-1與4.2 Mm-1;人為污染(Anthropogenic)類型的氣團包含中國東南方污染傳送與白天谷風帶來的本地污染,白天谷風造成PM10氣膠散光係數和氣膠吸光係數24小時平均影響量分別為15.1 Mm-1與1.6 Mm-1。源區生質燃燒、源區非生質燃燒、自由大氣、人為污染等四種類型氣團的氣膠直接輻射效應分別為-0.25、-0.22、-0.17、-0.60 W m-2,在生質燃燒期間氣膠單次散射反照率的低值與氣膠光學厚度的高值,會減低大氣氣膠對地球接收太陽直接輻射的冷卻效應。此外,考慮到氣膠化學成分會影響氣膠含水量,造成實際大氣氣膠散光效應會增加30.7%、2.5%、63.8%、37.7%,導致估算氣膠直接輻射效應需要修正。
摘要(英) The optical effects of atmospheric aerosol would influence solar radiation received and reflected by earth, therefore, the assessment of atmospheric aerosol optical properties on global warming is an important project. Lulin Atmosphere Background Station (LABS) at Mt. Lulin (2,862 m a.s.l.) in central Taiwan aims to observe the East Asian background atmospheric aerosol properties. Although Mt. Lulin is an elevated background station, it would still be affected by the Asian continental pollution and Indochina biomass burning through long-range transport. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of aerosol size distribution and aerosol chemical composition on the effects of changes in aerosol optical properties and use different models to estimate aerosol direct radiative effects for different air masses arriving at Mt. Lulin from October 2008 to April 2010.
  The air masses were classified into four types as air masses from source area of biomass burning (BB), source area of biomass burning during non-BB period (SNBB), free atmosphere (FT), and Anthropogenic sources (Anthropogenic). The BB type of air masses bring high concentrations of sulfate aerosol and carbon content of aerosol through the long-range transport. PM10 aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient could reach 127.2 Mm-1 and 24.6 Mm-1 respectively. For SNBB, aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient were 23.2 Mm-1 and 3.1 Mm-1 respectively. The FT type represented the East Asian clean background atmosphere properties. For FT, aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient were 25.0 Mm-1 and 4.2 Mm-1, respectively. For Anthropogenic type, air masses lower atmosphere of Asian continent and valley-breeze driven local pollution caused 15.1 Mm-1 and 1.6 Mm-1 for aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient, respectively. The direct radiative effects for BB, SNBB, FT, and Anthropogenic were -0.25, -0.22, -0.17, -0.60 W m-2, respectively. Lower single scattering albedo and higher aerosol optical depth would reduce the cooling effect of direct solar radiation during the biomass burning period. In addition, taking into account the aerosol water content affected by aerosol chemical compositions, the resulting aerosol scattering effect would increase by 30.7%, 2.5%, 63.8%, 37.7% for BB, SNBB, FT, and Anthropogenic, respectively.
關鍵字(中) ★ 氣膠直接輻射效應
★ 氣膠光學特性
★ 氣膠粒徑分布
★ 氣膠化學成分
★ 谷風
關鍵字(英) ★ aerosol direct radiative effects
★ aerosol optical properties
★ aerosol size distribution
★ aerosol chemical composition
★ valley-breeze
論文目次 摘 要 i
Abstract iii
致 謝 v
目 錄 vii
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xv
第一章 前言 1
  1.1 研究緣起 1
  1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
  2.1 大氣氣膠分類、來源與組成特性 3
    2.1.1 大氣氣膠分類 3
    2.1.2 大氣氣膠來源 4
    2.1.3 大氣氣膠粒徑分布與形成作用 4
    2.1.4 高山氣膠粒徑分布特性 6
    2.1.5 谷風效應 8
  2.2 氣膠光學特性 9
    2.2.1 氣膠散光效應 10
    2.2.2 氣膠吸光效應 11
    2.2.3 氣膠消光效應 11
    2.2.4 氣膠質量光學效率 13
    2.2.5 氣膠輻射效應 14
  2.3 大氣氣膠含水特性 20
    2.3.1 無機氣膠含水特性 20
    2.3.2 有機氣膠含水特性 21
第三章 研究方法 23
  3.1 研究架構 23
  3.2 觀測地點介紹 25
  3.3 大氣氣膠連續監測系統 27
    3.3.1 NOAA氣膠觀測系統 27
    3.3.2 氣膠觀測系統光學量測儀器原理 29
    3.3.3 質量濃度監測系統 36
    3.3.4 粒徑分布監測系統 38
    3.3.5 其他連續監測儀器 41
  3.4 氣膠含水量 42
    3.4.1 手動採樣設備 42
    3.4.2 採樣濾紙前處理與設置 45
    3.4.3 氣膠含水量分析 47
    3.4.4 ISORROPIA模式 52
    3.4.5 氣膠質量濃度分析 53
    3.4.6 氣膠水溶性離子分析 54
    3.4.7 氣膠有機酸分析 55
    3.4.8 氣膠碳成分分析 56
    3.4.9 氣膠水可溶有機碳成分分析 58
    3.4.10 似腐植質氣膠碳成分分析 60
    3.4.11 腐植質氣膠含量分析 61
  3.5 不同氣團來源判定方法 63
第四章 結果與討論 65
  4.1 本地污染影響評估 66
    4.1.1 本地污染判斷指標 66
    4.1.2 污染影響日篩選標準與討論 68
    4.1.3 本地污染個案分析 82
  4.2 氣膠光學特性分析 89
    4.2.1 不同氣團氣膠光學特性 95
  4.3 氣膠粒徑分布分析 122
    4.3.1 氣膠數目濃度與體積濃度粒徑分布 122
    4.3.2 個案分析 125
  4.4 氣膠質量光學效應分析 141
  4.5 氣膠直接輻射效應推估 145
  4.6 氣膠含水特性 154
    4.6.1 氣膠水溶性離子濃度 155
    4.6.2 氣膠碳成分濃度 157
    4.6.3 實際大氣氣膠含水量與ISORROPIA II模式推估比較 159
    4.6.4 多元迴歸分析氣膠含水量 167
    4.6.5 氣膠含水量對氣膠光學特性影響討論 170
第五章 結論與建議 173
  5.1 結論 173
  5.2 建議 175
第六章 參考文獻 176
附錄一 口試委員意見與回覆 186
附錄二: 氣膠粒徑分布的氣流軌跡來源個案探討 193
  2010/3/23 8:00 am ~ 6:00 pm 氣流軌跡線 194
  2010/3/24 8:00 am ~ 6:00 pm 氣流軌跡線 195
  2010/4/19 8:00 am ~ 6:00 pm 氣流軌跡線 196
  2010/4/20 8:00 am ~ 6:00 pm 氣流軌跡線 197
  2010/4/21 8:00 am ~ 6:00 pm 氣流軌跡線 198
附錄三: 氣膠直接輻射效應相關參數 199
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指導教授 李崇德(Chung-te Lee) 審核日期 2011-7-29
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