博碩士論文 973208018 詳細資訊


姓名 蔡佳霖(Chia-lin Tsai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 能源工程研究所
論文名稱 以化學浴沉積法製備四元化合物光電極薄膜之研究
(The study of quaternary compound photoelectrode thin film by chemical bath deposition)
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摘要(中) 本論文利用化學浴沉積法於ITO導電玻璃上沉積Ag-In-S-Se四元化合物光電極薄膜,並將之應用於光電化學產氫系統;就製程而言,化學浴沉積法具備便宜、簡單以及可大面積製備的優點,就材料而言,Ag-In-S-Se四元化合物可吸收紫外光與可見光波段的能量,因此極具有發展潛力。本研究將改變前驅物比例、水浴溫度、ph值、鍍層層數、磁石轉速、熱處理溫度以及硒的摻雜比例,用以探討薄膜的晶體結構、表面型態、光學以及光電化學性質。由XRD與EDS分析得知[Ag+]/[In3+] =1/5時可製備出AgIn5S8的結構,接著透過硒元素的摻雜後,使其轉變成AgIn5S8-xSex四元化合物,其直接能隙值由1.79 eV降至約1.75~ 1.786 eV之間,經由Mott-schottky量測得知其皆為n型半導體,其平帶電壓由-0.78 V增加至-0.93 V(vs. Ag/AgCl),而其載子濃度分別為2.58×10^10 cm-3以及2.83×10^12 cm-3,在光電流量測當中,使用0.25M K2SO3和0.35M Na2S當作犧牲試劑,於100 mW/cm2(AM 1.5G)的模擬太陽光照射下,其所量測到之光電流值分別為0.8 mA/cm2以及1.15 mA/cm2。另外於穩定性測試當中,將TiO2光電極薄膜覆蓋於AgIn5S8-xSex光電極薄膜層上,其可有效地減緩光腐蝕的現象,使光電流值減少3.57%的衰退。
摘要(英) Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is applied to deposit Ag-In-S-Se quaternary compound photoelectrode thin film on indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO), which can then be used as the photoelectrode in photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen. The advantages of chemical bath deposition are simple, inexpensive and large area deposition. Besides, Ag-In-S-Se quaternary compound can absorb ultraviolet and visible light so that it has potential to develope. In our experiment, we investigate the crystal structure, morphology, optic property, and PEC performance as precursor ratio, bath temperature, ph value, number of thin film, stirring rate, thermal treatment temperature and atomic percentage of selenium are changed. The results of XRD and EDS show that AgIn5S8 is obtained when [Ag+]/[In3+] =1/5 and transformed to AgIn5S8-xSex quaternary compound by doping selenium with the direct band gap decreasing from 1.79 eV to the range of 1.75~1.786 eV. Both are identified as n-type semiconductor according to Mott-Schottky measurement with decreasing flat band potential from -0.78 V to -0.93 V(vs. Ag/AgCl) and increasing carrier density from 2.58×10^10 cm-3 to 2.83×10^12 cm-3. In PEC measurement, we use 0.25M K2SO3 and 0.35M Na2S as sacrificial reagent and 100 mW/cm2(AM 1.5G) simulation sunlight as light source. The photocurrent density of AgIn5S8 and AgIn5S7.992Se0.008 is 0.8 mA/cm2 and 1.15 mA/cm2 with an external voltage of 0V(vs. Ag/AgCl) respectively. Moreover, the result of stability test shows that photocorrosion phenomenon is inhibited by covering TiO2 on AgIn5S8-xSex photoelectrode thin film, and reduces 3.57% decay of photocurrent density.
關鍵字(中) ★ 化學浴沉積法
★ 氫
★ 四元化合物
★ 光電極
★ 光電化學
關鍵字(英) ★ Photoelectrochemical
★ Photoelectrode
★ Quaternary compound
★ Hydrogen
★ Chemical bath deposition
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 光電極 3
1.3 太陽能光譜 3
1.4 光電化學產氫機制 5
1.5 化學浴沉積法 7
1.6 AgIn5S8可見光光電極薄膜 9
1.7 TiO2光電極薄膜 9
1.8 文獻回顧 10
1.8.1 化學浴沉積法文獻回顧 10
1.8.2 光觸媒文獻回顧 12
1.8.3 TiO2光電極薄膜文獻回顧 13
1.8.4 Ag-In-S三元化合物光電極薄膜文獻回顧 13
1.8.5 摻雜金屬元素文獻回顧 16
1.8.6 複合光電極薄膜文獻回顧 16
1.9 研究目的 17
第二章 化學浴沉積法原理 18
2.1 溶解度積和離子濃度積之概念 18
2.2 成長機制 21
2.3 薄膜的成長過程 22
第三章 實驗步驟與方法 25
3.1 實驗參數設定 25
3.2 實驗藥品與實驗裝置 25
3.2.1 實驗藥品 25
3.2.1.1 AgIn5S8-xSex反應鍍液(Ag+、In3+、S2-、Se4+)使用之藥品 25
3.2.1.2 TiO2反應鍍液(Ti4+、O2-)使用之藥品 27
3.2.1.3 薄膜電性分析時配製電解質溶液之使用藥品 27
3.2.2 實驗基材 28
3.2.3 實驗設備 28
3.3 實驗步驟 28
3.3.1 清洗基材 28
3.3.2 鍍液調配 29
3.3.2.1 AgIn5S8-xSex光電極薄膜鍍液調配 29
3.3.2.2 TiO2光電極薄膜鍍液調配 30
3.3.3 反應鍍液配製與鍍膜 31
3.3.3.1 AgIn5S8-xSex光電極薄膜反應鍍液配製與鍍膜 31
3.3.3.2 TiO2光電極薄膜反應鍍液配製與鍍膜 32
3.3.3.3 TiO2-AgIn5S8-xSex複合光電極薄膜反應鍍液配製與鍍膜 32
3.3.4 薄膜之後處理 33
3.3.4.1 AgIn5S8-xSex光電極薄膜之後處理 33
3.3.4.2 TiO2光電極薄膜之後處理 33
3.4 薄膜物性量測分析 34
3.4.1 XRD(X-ray Diffraction, X光粉末繞射儀) 34
3.4.2 SEM(Scanning electron microscope, 掃描式電子顯微鏡) 35
3.4.3 EDS(Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, 能量散射光譜儀) 35
3.4.4 UV-visible(紫外/可見光光譜儀) 36
3.4.5 光電化學性質量測分析 36
3.4.5.1 光電流值 36
3.4.5.2 平帶電壓 38
3.4.5.3 穩定性測試 39
3.4.6 Alpha step(薄膜厚度輪廓測度儀) 40
第四章 結果與討論 41
4.1 AgIn5S8光電極薄膜製備 42
4.1.1 反應物濃度比例 42
4.1.2 水浴溫度對薄膜的影響 43
4.1.3 pH值(硝酸量)對薄膜的影響 47
4.1.4 鍍層層數對薄膜的影響 50
4.1.5 磁石轉速對薄膜的影響 53
4.1.6 熱處理溫度對薄膜的影響 55
4.2 AgIn5S8-xSex光電極薄膜製備 58
4.3 TiO2光電極薄膜製備 61
4.4 TiO2-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008複合光電極薄膜製備 62
4.5 穩定性測試 64
第五章 結論與未來展望 66
5.1 結論 66
5.2 未來規劃 67
參考文獻 68
表目錄
表1-1 熱值比較表 76
表1-2 銳鈦礦與金紅石之物理性質比較 76
表1-3 氧化物光觸媒於犧牲試劑下之產氫與產氧活性 77
表1-4 可見光的硫化物光觸媒於犧牲試劑下之產氫活性 77
表2-1 溶解度常數表 78
表3-1 AgIn5S8反應溶液參數表 79
表3-2 硒離子摻雜溶液參數表 79
表3-3 TiO2反應溶液參數表 79
表3-4 量測電性分析所需配製之溶液參數表 80
表3-5 實驗分析種類與所使用之檢測儀器 80
表4-1 AgIn5S8所探討之實驗參數 81
表4-2 TiO2所探討之實驗參數 81
表4-3 各參數之薄膜厚度 82
圖目錄
圖1-1 為各種產氫方式之分類 83
圖1-2 光觸媒反應與應用示意圖 83
圖1-3 太陽能光譜 84
圖1-4 空氣質量 84
圖1-5 光電化學電解水之示意圖 85
圖1-6 兩電極還沒進行迦凡尼接觸之能量圖 85
圖1-7 兩電極進行迦凡尼接觸後之能量圖(無光照射) 86
圖1-8 兩電極進行迦凡尼接觸後之能量圖(有光照射) 86
圖1-9 在陽極施加偏壓之後之能量圖(有光照射) 87
圖1-10 化學水浴法沉積過程示意圖 87
圖1-11 銳鈦礦與金紅石之晶體結構 88
圖1-12 (CuAg)xIn2x Zn2(1-2x)S2 (X=0.01 - 0.3) 88
圖1-13 價帶中不同軌域之分佈圖 89
圖1-14 於犧牲試劑中電解水之半反應示意圖 89
圖1-15 改變能帶結構之方法示意圖 90
圖2-1 化學水浴法成長機制 90
圖2-2 化學水浴法薄膜成長階段示意圖 91
圖3-1 光觸媒薄膜製作流程與性質分析 91
圖3-2 ITO基材清洗流程圖 92
圖3-3 ITO基材封裝後之試片組 92
圖3-4 金屬陽離子溶液調配流程圖 93
圖3-5 用於摻雜之硒離子溶液調配流程圖 93
圖3-6 未摻雜之反應溶液配置與鍍膜流程圖 94
圖3-7 試片於鍍液瓶中之示意圖 94
圖3-8 鍍膜過程示意圖 95
圖3-9 摻雜硒之反應溶液配置與鍍膜流程圖 95
圖3-10 熱處理之升溫速率 96
圖3-11 布拉格繞射示意圖 96
圖3-12 光電化學量測試片之製作示意圖 97
圖4-1 陽離子溶液中不同[Ag]/[In]比例之XRD分析圖譜 97
圖4-2 不同水浴溫度之反應時間與示意圖 98
圖4-3 水浴溫度之XRD分析圖譜 98
圖4-4 水浴溫度之穿透率 99
圖4-5 水浴溫度之反射率 99
圖4-6 水浴溫度之吸收係數 100
圖4-7 水浴溫度之直接能隙 100
圖4-8 水浴溫度50℃之SEM圖(×50k) 101
圖4-9 水浴溫度65℃之SEM圖(×50k) 101
圖4-10 水浴溫度80℃之SEM圖(×50k) 102
圖4-11 硝酸量之XRD分析圖譜 102
圖4-12 不同反應時間相對於薄膜厚度之關係圖[55] 103
圖4-13 pH值相對於薄膜膜厚之關係圖[56] 103
圖4-14 硝酸量之穿透率 104
圖4-15 硝酸量之反射率 104
圖4-16 硝酸量之吸收係數 105
圖4-17 硝酸量之直接能隙 105
圖4-18 3毫升硝酸量之光電流 106
圖4-19 3.5毫升硝酸量之光電流 106
圖4-20 4.0毫升硝酸量之光電流 107
圖4-21 5.5毫升硝酸量之光電流 107
圖4-22 3毫升硝酸量之SEM圖(×50k) 108
圖4-23 3.5毫升硝酸量之SEM圖(×50k) 108
圖4-24 4.0毫升硝酸量之SEM圖(×50k) 109
圖4-25 5.5毫升硝酸量之SEM圖(×50k) 109
圖4-26 鍍層層數之XRD分析圖譜 110
圖4-27 鍍層層數=1之的SEM圖(×10k) 110
圖4-28 鍍層層數=2之SEM圖(×10k) 111
圖4-29 鍍層層數=3之SEM圖(×10k) 111
圖4-30 鍍層層數=4之SEM圖(×10k) 112
圖4-31 鍍層層數之穿透率 112
圖4-32 鍍層層數之反射率 113
圖4-33 鍍層層數之吸收隙數 113
圖4-34 鍍層層數之直接能隙 114
圖4-35 鍍層層數=1之光電流 114
圖4-36 鍍層層數=2之光電流 115
圖4-37 鍍層層數=1之SEM圖(×50k) 115
圖4-38 鍍層層數=2之SEM圖(×50k) 116
圖4-39 鍍層層數=3之SEM圖(×50k) 116
圖4-40 鍍層層數=4之SEM圖(×50k) 117
圖4-41 磁石轉速之XRD分析圖譜 117
圖4-42 磁石轉速之穿透率 118
圖4-43 磁石轉速之反射率 118
圖4-44 磁石轉速之吸收係數 119
圖4-45 磁石轉速之直接能隙 119
圖4-46 磁石轉速300rpm之光電流值 120
圖4-47 磁石轉速500rpm之光電流值 120
圖4-48 磁石轉速750rpm之光電流值 121
圖4-49 磁石轉速1000rpm之光電流值 121
圖4-50 磁石轉速300rpm之SEM圖(×1k) 122
圖4-51 磁石轉速500rpm之SEM圖(×1k) 122
圖4-52 磁石轉速750rpm之SEM圖(×1k) 123
圖4-53 磁石轉速1000rpm之SEM圖(×1k) 123
圖4-54 熱處理溫度之XRD分析圖譜 124
圖4-55 熱處理300℃之XRD分析圖譜( ) 124
圖4-56 熱處理溫度之穿透率 125
圖4-57 熱處理溫度之反射率 125
圖4-58 熱處理溫度之吸收係數 126
圖4-59 熱處理溫度之直接能隙 126
圖4-60 熱處理400℃之光電流值 127
圖4-61 熱處理500℃之光電流值 127
圖4-62 熱處理300℃之SEM圖(×50k) 128
圖4-63 熱處理400℃之SEM圖(×50k) 128
圖4-64 熱處理500℃之SEM圖(×50k) 129
圖4-65 熱處理300℃之SEM圖(×5k) 129
圖4-66 熱處理400℃之SEM圖(×5k) 130
圖4-67 熱處理500℃之SEM圖(×5k) 130
圖4-68 AgIn5S8掺雜硒之XRD分析圖譜 131
圖4-69 硫化鎘(CdS)掺雜硒之XRD圖譜與EDS分析[38] 131
圖4-70 AgIn5S8未掺雜硒之EDS分析 132
圖4-71 AgIn5S8掺雜硒0.05at%之EDS分析 132
圖4-72 AgIn5S8掺雜硒0.1at%之EDS分析 133
圖4-73 AgIn5S8掺雜硒0.5at%之EDS分析 133
圖4-74 AgIn5S8掺雜硒1.0at%之EDS分析 134
圖4-75 AgIn5S8掺雜硒之穿透率 134
圖4-76 AgIn5S8掺雜硒之反射率 135
圖4-77 AgIn5S8掺雜硒之吸收係數 135
圖4-78 AgIn5S8掺雜硒於紅外光波段之吸收係數 136
圖4-79 AgIn5S8掺雜硒之直接能隙 136
圖4-80 AgIn5S7.996Se0.004之光電流值 137
圖4-81 AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之光電流值 137
圖4-82 AgIn5S7.96Se0.04之光電流值 138
圖4-83 AgIn5S7.92Se0.08之光電流值 138
圖4-84 AgIn5S8之Mott-Schottky量測 139
圖4-85 AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之Mott-Schottky量測 139
圖4-86 AgIn5S7.996Se0.004之SEM圖(×50k) 140
圖4-87 AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM圖(×50k) 140
圖4-88 AgIn5S7.96Se0.04之SEM圖(×50k) 141
圖4-89 AgIn5S7.92Se0.08之SEM圖(×50k) 141
圖4-90 TiO2之XRD分析圖譜 142
圖4-91 TiO2(7M)之XRD分析圖譜( ) 142
圖4-92 TiO2之穿透率 143
圖4-93 TiO2之反射率 143
圖4-94 TiO2之吸收隙數 144
圖4-95 TiO2之直接能隙 144
圖4-96 TiO2(3M)之SEM圖 145
圖4-97 TiO2(5M)之SEM圖 145
圖4-98 TiO2(7M)之SEM圖 146
圖4-99 TiO2覆蓋過程示意圖(a)起始反應(b)終止反應 146
圖4-100 TiO2(3M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM圖 147
圖4-101 TiO2(5M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM圖 147
圖4-102 TiO2(7M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM圖 148
圖4-103 AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM剖面圖 148
圖4-104 TiO2(3M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM剖面圖 149
圖4-105 TiO2(5M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM剖面圖 149
圖4-106 TiO2(7M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之SEM剖面圖 150
圖4-107 TiO2(3M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之光電流 150
圖4-108 TiO2(5M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之光電流 151
圖4-109 TiO2(7M)-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之光電流 151
圖4-110 AgIn5S7.992Se0.008與TiO2-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之穩定性量测 152
圖4-111 AgIn5S7.992Se0.008與TiO2-AgIn5S7.992Se0.008之穩定性量测 (400 s~1800 s) 152
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指導教授 洪勵吾(Lih-wu Hourng) 審核日期 2010-7-21
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