博碩士論文 973310603 詳細資訊




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姓名 高雅娜(Maritza Canto)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 於貝里斯市進行移除簡易垃圾棄置場與興建衛生掩埋場的成本效益評估
(Cost Benefit Analysis between Open Dump and Sanitary Landfill: A Model for Sustainable Waste Management in Belize City)
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摘要(中) 在提升經濟及社會發展的同時,涉及公共衛生和環境安全的固體廢棄物管理,已成為許多開發中國家須優先探討的課題。快速的城市化與人口增長,使有關當局不斷面臨著垃圾產量越來越多的廢棄物處理和處置上的迫切性,使貝里斯的廢物管理成為一個日漸加劇的多層面社會問題。本研究重點在強調於貝里斯市設置標準之衛生掩埋場的需要。
貝里斯有關當局現階段正提議建立一個中央衛生掩埋場,並嘗試關閉目前的簡易型垃圾棄置場。簡易型垃圾棄置場會孳生傳播疾病之大量蚊蠅和鼠類而嚴重危及公共衛生,而且不受控制的垃圾滲出污水也可能污染表面水體和地下水。本研究目的是評估於福國卡地區興建垃圾衛生掩埋場和移除垃圾棄置場之間的成本效益。
福國卡掩埋場的垃圾收取範圍將包括聖佩德羅鎮、卡葉高爾鎮、貝里斯市、聖伊格納西奧、和聖塔伊黎娜等五個主要地區。這些五個區所產生的垃圾年產量,估計到了2030 年將達 45,758 噸/年(約125 噸/日)。福國卡掩埋場的設計容量因此採每天掩埋125 噸的垃圾量進行成本效益評估,評估的因子包括:民眾死亡率和發病率的降低效益,以及關閉及移除垃圾棄置場所取得再生復育土地的價值效益。研究結果顯示,依據所設定的掩埋場設計條件和財務估算假設,福國卡垃圾衛生掩埋場的總造價將為美金$4,312,895 元,20年營運期間的總運營成本是$18,618,912美元。但是,估計的總成本效益將$ 142,879,624美元,遠超過工程興建成本加上營運開支的費用。總成本效益中的$ 131,113,792美元係因降低死亡率和發病率的健康效益,主要是因移除垃圾棄置場因而消除垃圾堆的自發性燃燒產生的二氧化硫空氣污染物,以及減少含鉛重金屬的排放等所獲得的健康效益。其他的可能效益來自關閉及移除垃圾棄置場之復育土地價值,推估為美金$ 11,765,832元。本研究於現金流量估計20年的福國卡衛生掩埋場投資報酬率,投資淨現值為$241,594美元,內部投資報酬率為19%。
摘要(英) Solid waste management has become a major priority practice for many developing countries in order to secure the public health and environment while promoting justifiable economic and social development. In Belize, waste management is a multidimensional problem that has been aggravated by rapid urbanization and population growth rate. Therefore, the state environmental agencies are continuously faced with an increasing amount of solid wastes to handle. The goal of solid waste management is to minimize waste generation in the production process through the implementation of more appropriate collection systems for each situation and the employment of recovery and recycling, treatment, and refuse disposal processes and technologies. This paper highlights the need of constructing adequate sanitary landfill site in Belize City.
Currently in Belize, there is an initiative to build a central sanitary landfill, and try to close all existing open-dump facilities for refuse disposal. The refuse open-dump method may have serious danger to public health with its breeding of terrible flies and rats, which can transmit lots of diseases. The uncontrolled leachate from the open-dump refuse site may also pollute surface and ground waters. This study aims at assessing the establishment of Fukuoka semi-aerobic landfill site with the comparison of open-dump sites in the measure of a benefit-cost analysis.
The Fukuoka landfill site will service five major districts including San Pedro Town, Caye Caulker, Belize City, San Ignacio and Santa Elena. The municipal solid wastes generated from these five districts are estimated in this study to be 45,758 tons per year (125 tons per day) in 2030. The Fukuoka landfill site, which designed capacity is 125 tons/day, is assessed by benefit-costs analysis with three factors: the decreased costs of mortality and morbidity due to the reduction of sulphur dioxide from spontaneous burning and the lead emissions from open-dump sites and land use recycling. The results showed that, according to the designed conditions and economic assumption, the total construction cost of the Fukuoka sanitary landfill is US$4,312,895, and the total operation costs for 20-year duration is US$18,618,912. However, the total benefit is estimated to be US$US$142,879,624 that much surpasses the construction costs plus operation expenses. This study has estimated that there will have a benefit of US$131,113,792 getting from decreasing the damage costs of mortality and morbidity, that is because of the elimination of sulphur dioxide from spontaneous burning as well as the reduction of lead emissions from open-dump sites. The other benefit could be from restoring closed open-dump sites, and the restored land value to be US$11,765,832. According to the analysis with cash-flow sheet, the financial benefit of the Fukuoka landfill investment for 20-year duration is that the net present value (NPV) is US $ 2,241,594 and internal rate of return (IRR) is 19%.
關鍵字(中) ★ 垃圾棄置場
★ 成本效益分析
★ 衛生掩埋場
★ 都市垃圾
關鍵字(英) ★ Municipal Solid Waste
★ Benefit-Cost Analysis
★ Refuse Open-dump Site
★ Sanitary Landfill
論文目次 ABSTRACT I
中文摘要 III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V
TABLE OF CONTENT VI
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF FIGURES XI
ACRONYM XII
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Problem 1
1.2 Thesis Scope 4
1.3 Thesis Limitation 5
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Sustainable Development 6
2.2 Sustainable Solid Waste Management 7
2.3 Integrated Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries 12
2.3.1 Current Solid Waste Situation in Latin American Countries 13
2.3.2 Benefit-Cost Analysis 18
2.4.3 History of CBA 19
2.4.4 Conceptual Framework of Cost-Benefit Analysis 20
2.4.5 Importance of CBA in environmental policy studies 21
2.4.6 Case Studies using CBA analysis 22
2.5 Municipal Solid Waste Management: Belize City’s Context 30
2.5.1 Belize City: an Overview 31
2.5.2 Current Solid Waste Management in Belize City 31
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 36
3.1 Case Study utilizing water balance method to determine leachate generation 39
3.2 Belize City Case Study Area 41
CHAPTER 4: BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS: BELIZE CITY OPEN-DUMP SITE AND
PROPOSED SANITARY LANDFILL 43
4.1 Economic Benefit-Cost Analyses of the Central Sanitary Landfill 44
4.1.1 Cost of the Fukuoka method semi-aerobic landfill system 43
4.1.2 Uncertainties 48
4.1.3 Conclusion and recommendations 49
4.2 Environmental Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Open-Dump site 49
4.2.1 Reduction of Air Pollution (Sulphur Dioxide) 49
4.2.2 Land Value57
4.2.2.1 Land-use cost at the open dump-site in Belize City59
4.2.3 Reduction of heavy metal pollution (Lead)61
4.2.3.1 Mortality characterization61
4.2.3.2 Morbidity characterization62
4.2.3.3 Mortality calculations using human capital approach63
4.2.3.4 Morbidity calculations using cost of illness approach64
4.2.3.5 Heavy Metal Pb pollutant cost reduction66
4.2.4 Benefit Cost Analysis69
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION73
5.1 Realities and Issues73
5.2 Towards a Sustainable Solid Waste Management74
5.3 Recommendations for Future Research76
參考文獻 REFERENCES 77
APPENDIX A: Location, Map and National Flag of Belize 80
APPENDIX B: Belize City Open-Dump Site 81
APPENDIX C: Construction Site of proposed central sanitary landfill 84
APPENDIX D: SWMP Map with location of central landfill and transfer stations 89
APPENDIX E: Construction Capital Cost Estimation of Sanitary Landfill 90
APPENDIX F: Operating Cost Estimation of Sanitary Landfill 93
APPENDIX G: Equity Analysis of a Project 95
APPENDIX H: Closure Cost Estimation of Sanitary Landfill 99
APPEENDIX I: Survey Questionnaire 100
指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-Li-Liao) 審核日期 2010-8-6
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