博碩士論文 974203045 詳細資訊


姓名 高至怡(Chih-yi Kao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊管理學系
論文名稱 交通壅塞避免之動態繞路機制
(A Dynamic Detour Mechanism to Avoid Traffic Congestion)
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摘要(中) 隨著網路技術發展,從固定點的有線網路技術逐漸發展為可移動式的無線網路技術,手機、筆記型電腦、PDA等無線通訊設備皆具備WiFi的功能,隨時隨地可透過無線網路的技術存取相關資訊服務。近年來,數以萬計的車輛在世界的各個角落行駛,車用網路成為眾多國際網通大廠下一步欲開發的市場,透過網路與資訊設備的結合,智慧型運輸系統可提供駕駛人更多元化的交通應用服務。
本研究之目的在於解決交通道路上的壅塞情形,提早分散車流量,增加每條道路的使用率。為了使車輛及早避開壅塞路段,路況資訊由後端伺服器進行蒐集,並透過道路通訊設備協助通知特定車子壅塞資訊,一旦車內通訊設備收到道路壅塞的資訊,避開壅塞路段以及重新挑選一條到達目的地的最短路徑,因此可達成提早分散車流量之目的。其中,當壅塞事件發生時,壅塞通知的範圍是由後端伺服器所決定,在此規範為提前通知距離壅塞道路的n-hop路段,於壅塞通知範圍內的特定車子將排除壅塞路段重選新的路徑。壅塞通知範圍的大小將影響疏散壅塞之成效,如果因選擇範圍過小而過晚通知車內通訊設備,將會導致車子來不及換路便陷於壅塞路段之窘境;若選擇範圍過大則造成過早通知車內通訊設備,將導致換路的車子數量變多、路段的車速變慢以及平均車速下降,因此如何決定n的大小是本研究討論的議題之一。
然而對於上下班的通勤族而言,每日走相似的路徑,若將使用者經過的每一條路段平均花費時間作為選擇該路段的參考依據,未來在重新挑選路徑時,便能夠以過去花費最少時間成本的路徑為優先挑選的對象,此作法不僅可減少使用者到達目的地的時間,還可增加平均車速以及減少道路壅塞的情形,對於分散交通流量亦有改善。根據模擬實驗之結果,改良後的運作模式皆可有效地改善平均車子抵達目的地的時間。
摘要(英) In the past, we use wired network to surf Internet, but now we can access network services with mobile devices anytime and anywhere, such as cell phone, notebook or PDA with WiFi. In recent years, tens of thousands of vehicles travel on all corners of the world. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) becomes more and more attractive to many telecommunication and wireless communication corporations. With the combination of network and information, intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide many traffic information services to drivers.
The purpose of this study is to solve traffic congestion on the road and increase utilization of each road by balancing traffic flow. In order to avoid vehicles to be involved to congestive roads, the centralized server will collect traffic information from road side units (RSUs). Moreover, on board units (OBUs) can receive congestive information from RSUs if their remainder path suffers from congestion. When an on board unit receives congestive information, it will remove the congestion road on its map and reselect a new path to destination. However, the notification range of congestion event is determined by the server. In this study, the range of congestion notification is defined as n-hop from congestion road. Only the vehicles which locate in the n-hop congestion notification range will receive the message. Therefore, the parameter n will affect the effectiveness of congestion evacuation, and how to determine the size of n is one of the issues in this study.
For some commuters, they drive with a similar path every day. If the on board unit can record the average time of user spending on each road, it can use this information while reselecting a new path. In the simulation results, the average arrival time of users is much shorter, and the average speed of vehicles becomes faster, too. According to these simulation results, with user’s experience can improve traffic congestion significantly.
關鍵字(中) ★ 負載平衡
★ 壅塞避免
★ 智慧型運輸系統
關鍵字(英) ★ Load Balance
★ ITS
★ Congestion Avoidance
論文目次 中文摘要............................................................ i
Abstract........................................................... ii
目錄............................................................... iv
圖目錄............................................................. vi
表目錄............................................................. ix
一、 緒論........................................................ 1
1-1 研究背景.................................................. 1
1-2 研究動機與目的............................................ 1
1-3 論文架構.................................................. 3
二、 背景與相關研究.............................................. 4
2-1 智慧型運輸系統的基礎技術.................................. 4
2-2 智慧型運輸系統的通訊方式.................................. 8
2-3 智慧型運輸系統的應用服務領域............................. 10
三、 交通壅塞避免之動態繞路機制................................. 19
3-1 系統場景................................................. 19
3-2 動態繞路機制............................................. 22
3-2-1 動態繞路機制簡介................................... 22
3-2-2 封包類型........................................... 25
3-2-3 系統設備與方法..................................... 31
3-3 使用者經驗輔助法......................................... 46
3-3-1 使用端設備的經驗法記錄方式......................... 46
3-3-2 使用者經驗輔助機制................................. 47
四、 實驗方法與分析............................................. 49
4-1 模擬場景設定............................................. 49
4-2 模擬結果分析............................................. 51
4-2-1 壅塞集中場景....................................... 51
4-2-2 一般場景........................................... 61
4-2-3 使用者經驗輔助法................................... 73
4-3 實驗模擬改善程度......................................... 78
五、 結論....................................................... 83
六、 文獻參考................................................... 86
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指導教授 蘇坤良(Kuen-liang Sue) 審核日期 2010-7-14
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