博碩士論文 974204019 詳細資訊




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姓名 唐于茹(Yu-Ju Tang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 美國電力產業脫鉤政策之探討-以加州為例
(The Decoupling policy of the Utility Industry in United States-An Example of California.)
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摘要(中) 1970年代的兩次石油危機,石油價格開始上漲,各國推出替代性能源,而美國也是其中之一。其中,電力產業便是美國政府從1970年代開始積極改變能源效率的產業之一,當時政府推動需求面管理(Demand Side Management, DSM)及綜合資源規劃(Integrated Resource Planning, IRP)而加州電力產業為協助政府在DSM的落實,從1980年代開始配合政府推動脫鉤政策(Decoupling)來達到減少人均用電量的效果。從統計數據發現,2005年加州是全美人均用電量最低為7032 kWh,另外也發現,美國全國人均用電量從1970年代開始不斷上升,但加州人均用電量卻從1970年開始到目前為止都維持在固定水帄。本研究欲探討不論是聯邦政府或加州州政府對於電力產業從1970年代所推出的一連串降低人均用電量的政策。
本研究結果發現,加州、紐約州、華盛頓州及緬因州皆因落實脫鉤政策而使人均用電量在這二十年間維持不變或大幅的降低。另外,在落實脫鉤政策中的紐約州、華盛頓州及緬因州皆是因1988年美國公用事業委員會聯合會主辦的第一屆IRP研討會而有深遠的影響,使得各州推出激勵措施以加速落實DSM,而加州原本只有電力費率調整機制(Electric Rate Adjustment Mechanism, ERAM),也因此一會議加入股東激勵的內容。在脫鉤政策落實方面,不論是聯邦政府或州政府的力量的確是成功的因素之一。在2005年的發電方式來看,加州的再生能源發電為全國第二、緬因州為全國第一,而華盛頓州則是水力發電為全國之冠,可是紐約州還是依賴石油、煤及核能發電。另外,由於加州的脫鉤機制是相當複雜,除與各州相同有採用帄衡帳戶外,另外它的耗損調整相當複雜。而從加州的能源效率發展來看,在長達將近40年的時間中,能源效率的演進是從投入資金鼓勵企業,到設定法規的要求確立DSM的融資體制,至近幾年開始鼓勵用戶使用能源效率的裝置。最後發現,若只單純採用脫鉤機制,而沒有相關的獎勵政策,則電力公司也不見得會推動DSM,故脫鉤政策必頇要搭配良好的獎勵制度。
本研究主要的貢獻是國內第一篇完整探討美國電力產業的脫鉤政策,並納入聯邦法規、DSM管理的內容、四大州各項項目的比較及加州的能源效率演進的介紹。
摘要(英) After the two energy crises in 1970s, the price of petroleum started to rise. Countries all over the world also launched programs of substitute energy, and the United States was also one of them. Utility industry has been an industry which the American government actively involved to increase the energy efficiency since 1970s. By the time the U.S government conducted Demand Side Management (DSM) and Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) in 1980s, the California utility industry also adapted to the decoupling policy in order to cooperate with the government. While the power used per capita in America had kept rising since 1970, California always kept their numbers stable, and had the lowest power used per capita in the U.S. by year 2005 (7032 kWh). Our research aims to the utility policies on both the Federal Government of the U.S and the California government since 1970.
The result showed that California, New York, Washington and Maine have effectively lower the power used per capita in the past 20 years due to conducted decoupling policy. Besides, New York, Washington and Maine were all deeply affected by the first IRP conference held by the U.S. Public Utility Commission (UPUC), and California, which only used Electric Rate Adjustment Mechanism (ERAM), also added shareholder incentive into their program after the conference. By the power generating mechanisms of the four states in 2005, California was at the second place of recycled power generating, and Maine was at the first place. From the experience of California energy efficiency, we can conclude the steps of energy efficiency in the past 40 years: governments first invest money to encourage the businesses in utility industry, and then set up laws and regulations; it is also seen to encourage the users using energy efficiency equipments in recent years. We also found that decoupling mechanism will be more effective if it comes up with incentives to the utility companies.
The main contribution of our research is that we are the first study to completely investigate the decoupling policy of utility industry of the U.S in our country, and also included the contents of federal laws, DSM, the history of California energy efficiency and the comparison of various items between California, New York, Washington and Maine.
關鍵字(中) ★ 需求面管理
★ 脫鉤政策
★ 能源效率
★ 加州
★ 電力產業
關鍵字(英) ★ California
★ Utility Industry
★ Decoupling
★ DSM
★ Energy Efficiency
論文目次 中文摘要 ................................................................................................................................................. I
英文摘要 ............................................................................................................................................... II
致謝辭 .................................................................................................................................................. III
目錄 ......................................................................................................................................................... i
圖目錄 ................................................................................................................................................... iii
表目錄 ................................................................................................................................................... iv
第一章 緒論 .......................................................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 ......................................................................................................................... 1
1-2 研究目的 .................................................................................................................................... 4
1-3 研究架構 .................................................................................................................................... 6
第二章 文獻探討 .................................................................................................................................. 7
2-1 需求面管理 (Demand-side management, DSM) .................................................................... 7
2-1-1 DSM定義 (Demand-side management, DSM) ............................................................................... 7
2-1-2 DSM與供給面管理 (Supply-Side Management, SSM) 差異 ........................................................ 8
2-1-3 DSM與綜合資源規劃 (Integrated Resource Planning, IRP) 關聯性 .......................................... 8
2-1-4 實施DSM的問題 .............................................................................................................................. 9
2-1-5 小結 .................................................................................................................................................. 10
2-2 落實DSM的激勵措施 ............................................................................................................. 11
2-2-1 成本收回 (Cost Recovery) 機制 .................................................................................................... 11
2-2-2 銷售收入損失 (Lost Sales Revenues) 機制 .................................................................................. 12
2-2-3 績效獎勵 (Performance Incentives) .............................................................................................. 12
2-2-4 小結 .................................................................................................................................................. 12
2-3 脫鉤 (Decoupling) 政策 ......................................................................................................... 14
2-3-1 脫鉤的定義 ...................................................................................................................................... 14
2-3-2 電力產業中的脫鉤政策 ................................................................................................................... 14
2-3-3 電力產業中基本的脫鉤政策 ........................................................................................................... 15
2-3-4 加州電力產業脫鉤政策相關研究 ................................................................................................... 20
2-3-5 小結 .................................................................................................................................................. 21
第三章 研究方法與範圍 ..................................................................................................................... 22
3-1 研究方法 .................................................................................................................................. 22
3-2 研究架構 .................................................................................................................................. 24
3-3 研究範圍及限制 ....................................................................................................................... 25
第四章 電力產業分析 ......................................................................................................................... 26
4-1 電力產業介紹 ........................................................................................................................... 26
4-1-1 電的歷史 .......................................................................................................................................... 26
4-1-2 電力產業的運作模式 ....................................................................................................................... 27
4-1-3 電力產業的管理體制 ....................................................................................................................... 27
4-1-4 電力產業結構在全球的轉變 ........................................................................................................... 30
4-2美國電力產業 ............................................................................................................................ 32
4-2-1 美國電力的發展史 ........................................................................................................................... 32
4-2-2 美國DSM的演進階段 .................................................................................................................... 41
4-2-3 美國電力市場主體 ........................................................................................................................... 45
4-2-4 美國目前的發電概況 ....................................................................................................................... 47
4-3 各州的脫鉤政策 ....................................................................................................................... 48
4-3-1 加州的脫鉤政策-電力費率調整機制(Electric Rate Adjustment Mechanism, ERAM) ........... 48
4-3-2 紐約州的脫鉤政策-收入脫鉤機制(Revenue Decoupling Mechanism, RDM) .......................... 50
4-3-3 緬因州、華盛頓州的脫鉤政策-每一顧客收入 (Revenue-Per-Customer, RPC) ..................... 55
4-3-4 小結 .................................................................................................................................................. 61
第五章 個案分析-加州電力產業脫鉤政策 ..................................................................................... 66
5-1 加州電力產業的發展 ............................................................................................................... 66
5-1-1 加州介紹 .......................................................................................................................................... 66
5-1-2 加州電力產業概況 ........................................................................................................................... 67
5-1-3 加州能源效率的發展 ....................................................................................................................... 72
5-2 加州的脫鉤政策 ....................................................................................................................... 81
5-2-1 加州的脫鉤(decoupling)政策發展沿革 .......................................................................................... 81
5-2-2 加州落實脫鉤政策的方法 ............................................................................................................... 87
5-3 加州脫鉤政策和其它州脫鉤政策之差異 ............................................................................... 95
5-3-1 加州脫鉤政策和傳統電力規範的價格制定之差異 ....................................................................... 95
5-3-2 費率包含項目比較 ........................................................................................................................... 97
5-3-3 脫鉤政策其它項目的比較 ............................................................................................................... 98
5-4小結 ......................................................................................................................................... 107
第六章 結論及建議 ............................................................................................................................ 110
6-1結論 .......................................................................................................................................... 110
6-2研究限制 .................................................................................................................................. 114
6-3未來研究建議 ........................................................................................................................... 115
參考資料 ............................................................................................................................................. 116
(一)中文文獻 ............................................................................................................................. 116
(二)英文文獻 ............................................................................................................................. 116
(三)網路資料 ............................................................................................................................ 120
附錄 .................................................................................................................................................... 121
參考文獻 (一)中文文獻
1.井志忠,「從壟斷到競爭-日美歐電力市場化改革的比較研究」,商務印書館,2009/03。
2.台灣電力公司,「台灣電力公司永續報告書」,台灣電力公司,2009。
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5.陳志榮,「產官學三螺旋互動對產業群聚影響之探討-以丹麥風力能源產業為例」,國立中央大學,產業經濟研究所碩士論文,2009/06。
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(二)英文文獻
1.Battelle-Columbus Division and Synergic Resources Corporation. “Demand-Side Management, Evaluation of Alternatives.” Palo Alto, CA Electric Power Research Institute and a s on Electric Institute, 1984.
2.C.W. Gellings and J.P. Harper,” Energy conservation: Shaping energy use.” , Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, pp. 64-76, 1987.
3.California Energy Commission, “Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings”, CEC-400-2005-039-CMF, 2005/12.
4.California Energy Commission, ”Framework for Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Implications of Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants in California.”, 2009/12.
5.California Public Utilities Commission, California Energy Commission, “Energy Action Plan II- IMPLEMENTATION ROADMAP.”
6.California Public Utilities Commission, California Energy Commission, “For Energy Polices .”, 2005/09.
7.Chris Marnay, G. Alan Comnes, “Ratemaking for Conservation : The California ERAM Experience”, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBL-28019, 1990/3.
8.David Moskovitz, Chery Harrington, Tom Austin,“Decoupling vs. Lost Revenues Regulatory Considerations.”, Regulatory Assistance Project, 1992.
9.David Moskovitz, Chery Harrington, Tom Austin, Carl Weinberg and Edward Holt,” Regulatory Reform : Removing the Disincentives.”, The Regulatory Assistance Project, 1994/06.
10.David Moskoviz, “Profits & Progress through Least-Cost Planning.”, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, 1989/11.
11.David Nichols, ”Regulatory Incentives for Demand-Side Management Review for West Kootenay Power’s DSM Incentive Committee.”, Tellus Institute Boston, 1999/12/31.
12.Eric Hirst, “Statistical Recoupling: A New Way To Break The Link Between Electric-Utility Sales and Revenues”, OAK RIDGE National Laboratory, 1993/9.
13.Glark W Gellings, “Then and now The perspective of the man who coined the term ‘DSM’.”, Energy Policy. Vol.24, No 4, pp285-288, 1996.
14.Grants & Research Department, ”Decoupling For Electric & Gas Utilities: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)”, The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, 2007/09.
15.Janice A. Beecher, Patrick C. Mann, Youssef Hegazy and John D. Stanford,” Revenue effects of water conservation and conservation pricing: issues and practices.” The National Regulatory Research Institute, 1994/9.
16.Joseph Eto, Steven Stoft and S. Kito, “DSM Shareholder Incentives: Current Designs and Economic Theory.” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBL-36580, 1995/1.
17.Joseph Eto, “The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.” Environmental Energy Technologies Division, 1996/12.
18.Joseph Eto, Steven Stoft and Timothy Belden, “The Theory and Practice of Decoupling.” Utilities Policy, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 43-55, 1997.
19.Joseph Eto, Steven Stoft and Timothy Belden, “The Theory and Practice of Decoupling.” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBL-34555, 1994.
20.Juliet Eilperin, “Debate on Climate Shifts to Issue of Irreparable Change.”, Washington Post, 2006/02/29,A1.
21.Keri, Theresa, “Policies and strategies in California-To Achieve Maximum Energy Savings.”, 2009 International Forum on Energy Efficiency/DSM, 2009/02/26.
22.LESTER W. BAXTER, “Assessment of Net Lost Revenue Adjustment Mechanisms for Utility DSM Programs.”, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U. S. Department of Energy, 1995/01.
23.Lester W. Baxter, “Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs.”, U. S. Department of Energy, 1995/1.
24.Martin Kushler, Dan York, Patti Witte, “Aligning Utility Interests with Decoupling Energy Efficiency Objectives: A Review of Recent Efforts at Decoupling and Performance Incentives.”, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 2006/10.
25.National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, “DECOUPLING FOR ELECTRIC AND GAS UTILITIES FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)”, 2007/09.
26.Natural resources defense council, “Ratemaking for efficient resource Decisions”, This article by NRDC's Sheryl Carter appeared in The Electricity Journal, 2001/11.
27.OECD, “Indicators to Measure Decoupling of Environmental Pressure from Economic Growth.”, 2002.
28.Office of Technology Assessment, “Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities for Electric Utilities.”, OTA-E-561,1993/9.
29.Pamela G. Lesh, “RATE IMPACTS AND KEY DESIGN ELEMENTS OF GAS AND ELECTRIC UTILITY DECOUPLING- A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW.”, Graceful Systems LLC,2009/06/30.
30.Southern California Edison, ”California Case Study: Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency.”, 2007.
31.Steven Nadel, Yang Zhirong, and Shi Yingyi, " Integrated Resources Planning and Demand-Side Management Manual for China and Other Developing Countries.”, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, 1995.
32.Swisher, Martino Jannuzzi, and Redinger, “Integrated Resource Planning”, UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, 1997/11.
33.The Regulatory Assistance Project "Decoupling Workshop: Arizona Corporation Commission", April 15-16, 2010.
34.Timothy J. Brennan, “Demand-Side Management Programs Under Retail Electricity Competition”, Resources for the Future, 1998/10/01.
35.Wayne Shirley、Jim Lazar and Frederick Weston, " Revenue Decoupling Standards and Criteria- A Report to the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission”, The Regulatory Assistance Project, 2008/06/30.
36.World Health Organization, “Climate Change and Health”, 25th Meeting of Ministers of Health Thimphu, Bhutan, 31 August – 1 September 2007, Word Health Organization (WHO), 2007/07/24.
(三)網路資料
1.American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, ACEE:http://www.aceee.org/index.htm
2.California Public Utilities Commission:http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/puc/
3.Edison International:http://www.edison.com/default.asp
4.Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, EERE State Activities & Partnerships:http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/
5.Grand Coulee Dam – Columbia Basin Project:http://users.owt.com/chubbard/gcdam/
6.PG&E:http://www.pge.com/
7.SCE&G:http://www.sceg.com/en/
8.U.S. Energy Information Administration – Independent Statistics and Analysis:http://www.eia.doe.gov/
9.台灣電力公司:http://www.taipower.com.tw/
10.行政院經濟建設委員會:http://www.cepd.gov.tw/
11.徐守正,”穩定、效率、利益——美國公用電業DSM誘因機制”,2002/09能源報導,取自:http://energymonthly.tier.org.tw/outdatecontent.asp?ReportIssue=9109&Page=24
12.徐守正,美式作風──美國電力市場改革發展歷程,2004/11能源報導,取自:http://energymonthly.tier.org.tw/outdatecontent.asp?ReportIssue=9311&Page=31
13.美國在臺協會:http://www.ait.org.tw/
指導教授 王弓、張明宗
(Kung Wang、Ming-Chung Chang)
審核日期 2010-7-7
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