博碩士論文 975201004 詳細資訊


姓名 蔡明志(Ming-chih Tsai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 應用於植入式生醫系統的六十四通道電刺激器與阻抗量測電路之分析與設計
(Analysis and Design of a 64-Channel Electrical Stimulator and Impedance Measurement Circuitry for Implantable Biomedical Systems)
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摘要(中) 本論文著重在應用於植入式視覺輔具的多通道電刺激器以及阻抗量測電路。這個動機來自於色素性視網膜炎以及老年性黃斑部退化疾病導致感光細胞退化所引發的視覺障礙。正常的視網膜,透過感光細胞接收光刺激以產生神經訊號得到視覺;在感光細胞退化的視網膜上,則可利用視覺輔具透過視網膜或視覺皮質區上的電刺激,形成視覺感知。在此,我們設計了一個具有六十四通道刺激功能的電刺激器。
  電刺激器必須透過電極作為介面才能對神經或肌肉進行電刺激。由於所植入的介面並非為平面,電極-組織介面阻抗可能會因接觸不良、電極大小與材質的差異,又或者電極本體受刺激電流、環境等因素而產生變化。基於以上因素,長期地觀測阻抗變化是必要的。因此,本論文中亦設計了一個使用時間數位轉換器之阻抗量測電路,觀察植入後電極-組織介面的阻抗變化狀況,這將有利於評估刺激成效以及刺激參數的調整。
摘要(英) This thesis aims to design a multi-channel electrical stimulator and impedance measurement system for implanted visual prosthesis. The motivation comes from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degradation (AMD) both lead to photoreceptor degeneration and result in a significant visual deficit individual. In a healthy retina, the photoreceptors initiate a neural signal in response to light. In a retina with photoreceptor loss, a successful elicitation in visual perception will be possible by using electrical stimulation on retina or visual cortex by the visual prosthesis. In this paper, we design an electrical stimulator which is capable of 64-channel stimulation.
 The designed electrical stimulator stimulates nerves or muscles using electrodes as the interface. Due to the interface we implanted are not a flat surface, the electrode-tissue interface might have poor contact. Or the electrode size and material differences, electrode-self by stimulus current and environment factors, and so on. The impedance between electrode and tissue will be change. On account of these problems, a long term observation is required. Therefore, we designed an impedance measurement system with time-to-digital converter (TDC) to observe the status of electrode-tissue interface after implantation. It is useful for evaluating the effect on stimulation and adjustment of stimulus parameters.
關鍵字(中) ★ 時間數位轉換器
★ 阻抗量測
★ 電刺激器
關鍵字(英) ★ time-to-digital converter
★ impedance measurement
★ electrical stimulator
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 3
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 植入式功能性電刺激系統 4
2.1 植入式功能性電刺激的應用 4
2.2 植入式視覺輔具 5
2.2.1 視覺的生成 6
2.2.2 利用電刺激產生視覺反應 7
2.2.3 無線視覺輔具系統 9
2.3 電刺激模式與參數 10
2.3.1 電刺激模式 11
2.3.2 電刺激參數 13
2.4 論文中整體電路架構 16
第三章 六十四通道電刺激器之設計 17
3.1 刺激電流產生器電路設計 18
3.1.1 數位類比轉換器規格考量 18
3.1.2 二位元權重數位類比轉換器 19
3.2 H型切換器 24
3.3 電刺激器電路架構 26
3.4 六十四通道電刺激器之設計考量 28
第四章 阻抗量測電路設計 30
4.1 阻抗量測電路架構 30
4.2 儀表放大器 31
4.2.1 傳統式儀表放大器 32
4.2.2 電流模式儀表放大器 34
4.3 類比數位轉換器之介紹 36
4.3.1 單斜率類比數位轉換器(Single Slope ADC) 36
4.3.2 雙斜率類比數位轉換器(Dual Slope ADC) 36
4.3.3 連續近似類比數位轉換器(Successive Approximation ADC) 38
4.3.4 快閃式類比數位轉換器(Flash ADC) 39
4.4 具有時間數位轉換器之阻抗量測電路 40
4.4.1 電路動作原理 40
4.4.2 電壓時間轉換器 42
4.4.3 時間數位轉換器 47
4.5 電路設計考量與規格制定 53
4.5.1 儀表放大器的輸出 53
4.5.2 電壓時間轉換器 53
4.5.3 時間數位轉換器 54
第五章 電路模擬與晶片量測 55
5.1 電刺激器模擬結果 55
5.1.1 單通道電刺激器模擬結果 55
5.1.2 數位控制電路 58
5.1.3 六十四通道電刺激器 59
5.2 阻抗量測電路模擬與量測結果 63
5.2.1 佈局後模擬結果(Post-Layout Simulation) 63
5.2.2 佈局考量 70
5.2.3 量測考量 72
5.2.4 量測結果 74
5.3 文獻比較 75
第六章 結論與未來展望 77
6.1 結論 77
6.2 未來展望 77
參考文獻 79
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指導教授 薛木添(Muh-tian Shiue) 審核日期 2011-7-25
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