博碩士論文 975201107 詳細資訊




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姓名 邱垣達(Yuan-Ta Chiu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 低功耗低相位雜訊差動及四相位單晶微波積體電路壓控振盪器之研究
(Research on Low Power Low Phase Noise Differential and Quadrature Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit VCOs)
相關論文
★ 微波及毫米波切換器及四相位壓控振盪器整合除三 除頻器之研製★ 微波低相位雜訊壓控振盪器之研製
★ 高線性度低功率金氧半場效電晶體射頻混波器應用於無線通訊系統★ 砷化鎵高速電子遷移率之電晶體微波/毫米波放大器設計
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★ 微波與毫米波相位陣列收發積體電路之研製★ 24 GHz汽車防撞雷達收發積體電路之研製
★ 高功率高效率放大器與振盪器研製★ 微波與毫米波寬頻主動式降頻器
★ 微波及毫米波注入式除頻器與振盪器暨射頻前端應用★ 寬頻主動式半循環器與平衡器研製
★ 雙閘極元件模型與微波及毫米波分佈式寬頻放大器之研製★ 銻化物異質接面場效電晶體之研製及其微波切換器應用
★ 微波毫米波寬頻振盪器與鎖相迴路之研製★ 使用達靈頓對之單晶微波及毫米波寬頻電路
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摘要(中) 現代通訊系統中,低相位雜訊的壓控振盪器是不可或缺的元件,由於高資料傳輸量的需求,促使我們研究高頻的通訊系統。因此,如何設計高頻率並同時具有低相位雜訊的振盪器是一個值得探討的重點。另外,四相位的振盪器也常被用在直接轉換的收發機系統中,本論文中也針對如何直接量測四相位壓控振盪器之振幅及相位誤差作了探討。
本論文的主題在於使用互補式金氧半場效電晶體及鉮化鎵異質接面假晶格高電子移動率電晶體製程,設計並實現微波及毫米波振盪器,研究的方向著重在應用於K頻段的低功耗、低相位雜訊差動及四相位壓控振盪器。論文主要可分為四大部分,第一部份介紹振盪器之設計參數、理論及應用於共振腔中的被動元件之設計。第二部分提出了新型具有低功耗及低相位雜訊的差動振盪器。第三部分則探討使用鉮化鎵異質接面假晶格高電子移動率電晶體製程來設計考畢茲振盪器之優缺點。論文的最後一部分主要在介紹四相位振盪器的原理、應用及架構,並且提出新型的四相位振盪器,同時說明其設計概念及直接量測相位、振幅誤差的方法。
首先我們使用台積電90奈米CMOS製程實現了K頻段使用變壓器回授及電流再利用架構之壓控振盪器。量測結果顯示,此電路振盪頻率可調範圍為21.3 ~ 20.3 GHz,並且在1-MHz偏移時的相位雜訊為-116.4 dBc/Hz,功率消耗為3毫瓦,輸出功率為-16 dBm,並且僅佔用0.36 mm2的晶片面積,優位指數(FOM)為-198 dBc/Hz。此晶片也可經由雷射切割來修改其振盪頻率,切割後的電路振盪頻率為25.1 ~ 23.6 GHz,並且在1-MHz位移時的相位雜訊為-120 dBc/Hz,功率消耗為6.9毫瓦,輸出功率為-12 dBm,優位指數(FOM)為-199.4 dBc/Hz。
接下來是使用穩懋鉮化鎵異質接面假晶格高電子移動率電晶體製程所設計的考畢茲壓控振盪器。總共討論了三種使用不同回授的電路架構,包含使用變壓器回授、不使用變壓器回授、同時使用變壓器回授及閘極電感回授等。量測結果說明變壓器回授應用在考畢茲振盪器上會造成反效果,所以建議在設計時使用閘極電感回授即可。三個電路的晶片面積皆為1 mm2,與CMOS製程比較起來,使用此製程之振盪器具有較高的輸出功率及效率。
最後一部分為使用台積電90奈米CMOS製程來實現的新型K頻段四相位壓控振盪器,此電路採用融合了第一部分差動振盪器的優點並且採用串聯耦合形式,所以能達到非常低的功耗。量測結果顯示,此電路振盪頻率可調範圍為20.6 ~ 21.2 GHz,並且在1-MHz偏移時的相位雜訊為-117.2 dBc/Hz,功率消耗為6.3毫瓦,輸出功率為-15 dBm,相位及振幅誤差分別為4度及0.6 dB,優位指數(FOM)為-195.6 dBc/Hz,並且僅佔用0.77 mm2的晶片面積。
摘要(英) In modern communication systems, voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is an in-dispensable building block. Since the demand for high data transmission rate is increas-ing, we were driven to investigate high-frequency communication systems. Therefore, how to design a high-frequency and low phase noise VCO is an important issue to be explored. In addition, since a quadrature VCO (QVCO) is commonly used in the di-rect-conversion transceivers we also discussed the measurement method of phase and amplitude error.
Our researches were focused on using CMOS and GaAs PHEMT processes to de-sign and realize microwave and millimeter-wave VCOs and the circuit design was fo-cused on K-band low power and low phase noise differential and quadrature VCOs. There are four parts in the thesis. In the first part, the design parameters, oscillator the-ory, and the design of passive components in an LC-tank were introduced. In the second part, we proposed an innovative low power low phase noise differential VCO. In the third part, the pros and cons of using GaAs PHEMT process to design the Colpitts VCOs were investigated. In the last part, operation principles, application and topologies of QVCOs were introduced, an innovative QVCO was proposed, and the measurement method of phase and amplitude error was explained as well.
Firstly, we used TSMC 90 nm CMOS process to realize a K-band VCO with transformer-feedback and current-reused techniques. The measured results showed that the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 21.3 to 30.3 GHz. The phase noise is -116.4 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The dc power consumption is 3 mW and the output power is -16 dBm. The chip size is only 0.36 mm2. The VCO demonstrated a Figure of Merit (FOM) of -198 dBc/Hz. This chip can also be laser-cut to modify its oscillation fre-quency. After being laser-cut, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 25.1 to 23.6 GHz. The phase noise is -120 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The dc power consumption is 6.9 mW and the output power is -12 dBm. The laser-cut VCO demonstrated a FOM of -199.4 dBc/Hz.
Secondly, we used WIN GaAs PHEMT process to design Colpitts VCOs including three circuits with different feedback topologies. These are the modified VCOs with transformer feedback, without transformer feedback, and with transformer and gate in-ductive feedback. The measured results showed that applying transformer-feedback technique to the Colpitts oscillator will cause counter effect. Therefore, the Colpitts os-cillator with gate inductive feedback only was recommended if large bandwidth is pre-ferred. Each of three chips occupies a chip size of 1 mm2. Compared to the CMOS pro-cess, the VCO using this process has larger output power and efficiency.
Finally, we used TSMC 90 nm CMOS process to realize an innovative K-band QVCO. This circuit was based on the differential version of previously proposed CMOS VCO and adopted the bottom-series coupling topology. Therefore, ultra-low power consumption was achieved. The measured results showed that the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 20.6 to 21.2 GHz. The phase noise is -117.2 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The dc power consumption is 6.3 mW and the output power is -15 dBm. The minimum I/Q phase and amplitude error are 4° and 0.6 dB, respectively. The QVCO demonstrated a FOM of -195.6 dBc/Hz. The chip size is only 0.77 mm2.
關鍵字(中) ★ 四相位壓控振盪器
★ 低相位雜訊
★ 單晶微波積體電路
★ 低功耗
★ 互補式金氧半場效電晶體
★ 異質接面假晶格高電子移動率電晶體
關鍵字(英) ★ complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
★ monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)
★ PHEMT
★ low phase noise
★ quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO)
★ Low power
★ pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor
論文目次 Abstract..................................................................III
Acknowledgements............................................................V
List of Figures............................................................XI
List of Tables..........................................................XXIII
Chapter 1 Introduction.....................................................1
1.1 Motivation...........................................................1
1.2 Literatures Survey...................................................2
1.3 Contributions........................................................4
1.4 Thesis Overview......................................................5
Chapter 2 Basics of Voltage-Controlled Oscillators.........................7
2.1 Introduction.........................................................7
2.1.1 Frequency Tuning.................................................7
2.1.2 VCO Gain.........................................................9
2.1.3 Load Pulling and Supply Pushing..................................9
2.1.4 Definition of Phase Noise.......................................10
2.1.5 Importance of Phase Noise.......................................12
2.1.6 Other Specifications............................................16
2.1.7 VCO's Figure of Merits..........................................17
2.1.8 Output Buffers..................................................18
2.2 Oscillator Theory...................................................19
2.2.1 Barkhausen Criteria.............................................19
2.2.2 Negative-Resistance Oscillators Analysis........................20
2.3 Tank Properties.....................................................22
2.3.1 Q Definitions...................................................23
2.3.2 LC-Tank.........................................................24
2.4 Leeson's Empirical Phase Noise Model................................26
2.5 Passive Components..................................................30
2.5.1 Inductors.......................................................30
2.5.2 Transformers....................................................41
2.5.3 Capacitors......................................................49
2.5.4 Varactors.......................................................50
Chapter 3 Design and Analysis of Current-Reused Transformer-Feedback VCO..55
3.1 Introduction........................................................55
3.2 Analysis and Design.................................................59
3.3 Measurement and Discussions.........................................83
3.4 Summary.............................................................95
Chapter 4 Design and Analysis of the Modified Colpitts VCOs...............97
4.1 Introduction........................................................97
4.2 Analysis and Design.................................................99
4.3 Measurement and Discussions........................................118
4.4 Summary............................................................129
Chapter 5 A K-Band Low-Power Low-Phase-Noise Quadrature VCO..............131
5.1 Introduction.......................................................131
5.1.1 Generation of LO Signals with Quadrature Phase.................133
5.1.2 Active Coupling................................................135
5.1.3 Passive Coupling...............................................152
5.1.4 Measurement Method of Phase and Amplitude Error................155
5.2 Circuit Design.....................................................164
5.3 Measurement and Discussions........................................179
5.4 Summary............................................................191
Chapter 6 Conclusions....................................................193
Bibliography..............................................................195
Publications..............................................................205
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指導教授 張鴻埜(Hong-Yeh Chang) 審核日期 2011-7-26
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