博碩士論文 981204003 詳細資訊




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姓名 林恩志(En-chih Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所
論文名稱 人類中心主義批判研究
(Study of Anthropocentrism Critique)
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摘要(中) 本篇論文的主旨在於否證「強義人類中心主義」與「非人類中心主義」,並且指出,相較於前二者,「弱義人類中心主義」才是一套較為完善的環境倫理學系統。
  本篇論文由 Norton 的人類中心主義理論作為參考系,涵蓋了以下的重點:(1) 人類中心主義的定義:由諸多歧異的字詞與諸學者的定義,釐清三種不同的人類中心主義;(2) 「強義人類中心主義」的理論錯誤之處:由非人類中心主義學者的理論來否證「強義人類中心主義」;(3) 「非人類中心主義的理論」錯誤之處:指出非人類中心主義理論與其立場的錯誤之處;(4) 為何我們應該選用「弱義人類中心主義」:說明為何「弱義人類中心主義」是一套較為完善的環境倫理學。
摘要(英) The main thrust of the thesis that is to refute “strong anthropocentrism” and “non-anthropocentrism”, and that indicate “weak anthropocentrism” is a better approach in the environmental ethic.
  This thesis that it takes the opportunity to Norton‟s Anthropocentrism as a framework, deals with four issues. First, to define two kinds of Anthropocentrisms, I attempt to discuss the different definition between researchers. Besides, I would take the thesis of “non-anthropocentrism “ to refute “strong anthropocentrism”. Thirdly, I would point out there are some mistakes in thesis of “non-anthropocentrism “. Finally, I will explain why we should exercise “weak anthropocentrism” as a complete environmental perspective.
關鍵字(中) ★ 人類中心主義
★ 物種主義
★ 動物權
★ 環境倫理學
關鍵字(英) ★ anthropocentrism
★ speciesism
★ animal rights
★ environmental ethic
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要                     i
英文摘要                     ii
目錄                       iii
導論                       1
第一章 「人類中心主義」之意涵         4
 第一節 物種主義的起源與其定義         4
 第二節 人類中心主義與其定義          12
  一、 兩種人類中心主義            12
  二、 取代「物種主義」            16
第二章 批判強義人類中心主義          19
 第一節 Regan對強義人類中心主義的批判     20
 第二節 Singer對強義人類中心主義的批判    25
  一、 邊緣案例                25
  二、 人類生命神聖觀             29
第三章 批判非人類中心主義           37
 第一節 Regan式固有價值缺失          37
 第二節 Singer式平等主義缺失         43
  一、 效益主義所帶來的兩難          43
  二、 矛盾的判斷標準             48
第四章 弱義人類中心主義            55
 第一節 理性的考量               56
 第二節 不同於動物的人類            62
  一、 人類義務與尊嚴             62
  二、 社群賦予的道德考量           65
結論                       73
 第一節 研究回顧                74
 第二節 展望                  78
參考書目                     80
參考文獻 參考書目
一、 期刊論文:
1. Bekoff, Marc, Gruen, Lori. 1993, “Animal Welfare and Individual Characteristics: A Conversation Against Speciesism”, in Ethics and Behavior, 3(2), 163-175.
2. Barilan, Y. Michael. 2005, “Speciesism as a precondition to justice” in Politics and the Life: Sciences, 23(1), 22-33.
3. Bernstein, Mark. 2004, “Neo-Speciesism”, in Journal of Social Philosophy, 35(3), 380-390.
4. Brennan, Andrew. 2003, “Humanism, Racism and Speciesism” in Worldviews: Environment Culture Religion, 7(3), 247-302.
5. Cathryn, Bailey. 2009, “A Man and A Dog in a Lifeboat - Self-Sacrifice, Animals, and the limits of Ethical Theory”, in Ethics & Environmental, 14(1), 129-148.
6. Cochrane, Alasdair. 2007, “Animal Rights and Animal Experiments: An Interest-Based Approach”, in Res Publica: A Journal of Legal and Social Philosophy, 13(3), 293-318.
7. Cushing, Simon. 2003, “Against ’’Humanism’’: Speciesism, Personhood, and Preference”, in Journal of Social Philosophy, 34(4), 556-571.
8. Dixon, Nicholas. 1995, “A Utilitarian Argument for Vegetarianism” in Between the Species: A Journal of Ethics, 11(3-4), 90-97.
9. Dogan, Aysel. 2011, “A Defense of Animal Rights” in Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 24(5), 473-491.
10. Epstein, Richard A. 2004, “Animals as Objects, or Subjects, or Rights” in Animal Rights: Debates and Current Directions, edited by Cass. R. Sunstein and Martha. C. Nussbaum, Oxford University Publishers, 143-161
11. Feller, David Allan. 2009, “Dog Fight: Darwin As Animal Advocate in the Antivivisection Controversy of 1875” in Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 40C(4), 265-271.
12. Fjellstrom, Roger. 2002, “Specifying Speciesism”, in Environmental Values, 11(1), 63-74.
13. Frey, R.G. 1977, “Interests and Animal Rights.” in Philosophical Quarterly, 27(108), 254-259.
14. Frey, R. G. 2005, “Animals and Their Medical Use” in Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, edited by Andrew I. Cohen and Christopher Heath Wellman, Blackwell Publishers.
15. Goldman, Michael. 2001, “A Transcendental Defense of Speciesism”, in Journal of Value Inquiry, 35(1), 59-69.
16. Goodheart, Eugene. 2006, “Peter Singer’s Challenge” in Philosophy and Literature, 30(1), 238-247
17. Graft, Donald. 1997, “Against Strong Speciesism” in Journal of Applied Philosophy, 14(2), 107-118.
18. Hart, H. L. A. 1955, ”Are There Any Natural Rights?” in The Philosophical Review, 64(2), 175-191.
19. Lee, Jack. 2008, “Are All Animals equal?” in Studies on Humanities and Ecology in Taiwan, 10(1), 29-43.
20. Lee, Jack. 2008, “How Should Animals Be Treated?”, in Ethics, Place and Environment, 11(2), 184-188.
21. Murdy, William H., 2004, “Anthropocentrism: A Modern Version,” in Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, edited by Richard G. Botzler and Susan J. Armstrong, Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill, third edition, 280-87.
22. Norton, Bryan G., 2003, “Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism,” in Environmental Ethics: An Anthology, edited by Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III, MA: Blackwell Publishing, first edition, 163-74.
23. Nuyen, A. Tuan. 1981, “An Anthropocentric Ethics Towards Animals and Nature” in Journal of Value Inquiry, 15(3), 215-223.
24. Oliver, Kelly. 2008, What Is Wrong with (Animal) Rights? in Journal of Speculative Philosophy: A Quarterly Journal of History, Criticism, and Imagination, 22(3), 214-224.
25. Regan, Tom. 1977, “Frey on Interests and Animal Rights” in Philosophical Quarterly, 27(109), 335-337.
26. Regan, Tom. 2000, "Animal rights, human wrongs" in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, edited by M. E. Zimmerman, J. B. Callicott, G. Sessions, K. J. Warren and J. Clark, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 39-52.
27. Ritter, Michael J. 2010, “Standing in the Way of Animal Welfare: A Reconsideration of the Zone-of-Interest "Gloss" on the Administrative Procedures Act” in Review of Litigation, 29(4), 951-986.
28. Rossi, John. 2010, “Is Equal Moral Consideration Really Compatible with Unequal Moral Status?” in Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 20(3), 251-276.
29. Ryder, Richard D. 2004, “Speciesism Revisited”, in Think spring, 2(6), 83-29.
30. Sapontzis, Steve F. 1983, “Interests and Animals, Needs and Language” in Ethics and Animals, 4, 38-49.
31. Sapontzis, Steve F. 1982, “The Moral Significance of Intereests” in Environmental Ethics: An Interdisciplinary Journal Dedicated to the Philosophical Aspects of Environmental Problems, 4, 345-358.
32. Singer, Peter. 2000, “All Animals are Equal”, in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, edited by M. E. Zimmerman, J. B. Callicott, G. Sessions, K. J. Warren and J. Clark, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 25-38.
33. Singer, Peter. 2009, Speciesism and Moral Status, in Metaphilosophy, 40(3-4), 567-581.
34. Simmons, Aaron. 2009, “Do Animals Have an Interest in Continued Life? In Defense of a Desire-Based Approach” in Environmental Ethics: An Interdisciplinary Journal Dedicated to the Philosophical Aspects of Environmental Problems, 31(4), 375-392.
35. Squadrito, Kathy. 1991, “Commentary: Interests and Equal Moral Status” in Between the Species: A Journal of Ethics, 78-79.
36. Taylor, Chloe. 2010, “Foucault and the Ethics of Eating” in Foucault Studies, 9, 71-88.
37. Taylor, Paul W. 1981, "The Ethics of Respect for Nature" in Environment Ethics, 3(3), 197-218.
38. Vincent, Stephen. 2010, “To Be or Not to Be?” in Human Life Review, 36(3), 77-83.
39. Voice, Paul. 1995, “What Do Animals Deserve?” in South African Journal of Philosophy, 14(1), 34-38.
40. Warren, Mary Anne. 1998, “A Critique of Regan’s Animal Rights Theory”, in Environmental Ethics: Reading in Theory and Application, edited by Louis P. Pojman, New York: Wadsworth, pp. 52-57.
41. Watson, Richard. 2004, “A Critique of Anti-Anthropocentric Ethics”, in “Environmental Ethics”, ed . By Louis P. Pojman, 245-256.
42. Williams, Meredith. 1980, “Rights, Interests, and Moral Equality” in Environmental Ethics: An Interdisciplinary Journal Dedicated to the Philosophical Aspects of Environmental Problems, 2, 149-162.
43. Zamir, Tzachi. 2006, “Is Speciesism Opposed to Liberationism?”, In Philosophia: Philosophical Quarterly of Israel, 34(4), 465-475.
二、 專書:
1. 王俊秀,2001,《環境社會學的想像》,台北:巨流圖書公司出版,初版一刷。
2. 朱建民.葉保強.李瑞全(編著),2005,《應用倫理與現代社會》,臺北:國立空中大學,初版。
3. 莊慶信,2002,《中西環境哲學:一個整合的進路》,台北:五南圖書出版公司,初版一刷。
4. 楊通進,2000,《走向深層的環保》,成都:四川人民,初版。
5. 袁中新(編),2000,《環境倫理與科》,臺北:巨流出版,二版
6. Cavalieri, Paola. (Author), Woollard, Catherine. (Translator), 2003, The Animal Question: Why Non-Human Animals Deserve Human Rights, New York: Oxford Scholarship Online.
7. Frey, R.G. 1980, Interests and Rights: The Case Against Animals, New York: Oxford University Press.
8. Gudorf, Christine E.; Huchingson, James Edward. 2010, Boundaries: A Casebook in Environmental Ethics, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Publishing.
9. Guin, Ursula K. Le. 1992, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas, Mankato MN: Creative Education.
10. Light, Andrew.; Rolston, Holmes. 2002, Environmental Ethics: An Anthology, Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
11. Pojman, Louis P. 2004, Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing Press.
12. Regan, Tom. 1985, In the case for Animal rights, Berkeley: University of California.
13. Rolston, Holmes, III. 2011, A New Environmental Ethics: The Next Millennium for Life on Earth, New York: Routledge Publishing press.
14. Sandler, Ronald L. 2007, Character and Environment: A Virtue-Oriented Approach to Environmental Ethics, New. York: Columbia University Publishing.
15. Schoch, Robert M. 2011, Environmental Ethics: A Case Studies Approach, London: Jones & Bartlett Publishing.
16. Singer, Peter. 1999, Practical Ethics, New York: Cambridge University.
17. Singer, Peter. 2002, Animal Liberation, New York: Harper Collins.
18. Singer, Peter. 2006, In defense of Animals, Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
19. Taylor, Paul W. 1986, Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics, Princeton: Princeton University.
20. Wenz, Peter S. 2000, Environmental Ethics Today, New York: Oxford University Publishing.
指導教授 李凱恩(Kai-en Lee) 審核日期 2012-7-7
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