博碩士論文 981205601 詳細資訊




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姓名 吳佩珊(Pei-shan Ng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 歷史研究所
論文名稱 英殖民政府對吉隆坡華人事務管理──從自治至法治的轉變(1868-1914)
(The Governance of British Colonial Government Towards Chinese in Kuala Lumpur and its Chinese Affairs:The Change from Self-governance to the Rule of Law (1868-1914))
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摘要(中) 19世紀中葉,因應馬來亞對錫礦產業和種植業發展,大量華工進入馬來亞尋找就業機會。他們來到馬來亞後並未融入其他族群,而是依照原有文化、習慣,在異地開展新生活。當大量群眾聚集,既需要相應的領導、管理模式,因此,華人在馬來亞組成自治社會,按照自己的方式進行管理。吉隆坡甲必丹是華人領導,而秘密會社是領導組織。由於甲必丹身兼秘密會社首領身份,兩者的結合形成穩固的權力結構。英殖民政府在雪蘭莪州推行參政司制度後,華人還是延續使用自治模式。英殖民政府即以任命甲必丹管理華人實行間接統治。後因華人社會問題層出,如僱傭權益遭侵占、華工吸食鴉片、婦女遭拐賣,以及秘密會社製造騷亂,引起英殖民政府關注。英殖民政府乃改以直接統治,即頒布法令以及透過法庭解決各項華人問題。華民護衛官被任命執行相關法令,也作為與華人間的溝通橋樑。此一頒布法令以及透過法庭實施治理之方式,表示華人社會從自治轉變至法治,也反應英國對華人的治理方式從間接變為直接。在上述框架之下,本文擬以吉隆坡華人作為研究對象,探討1868年至1914年,華人從自治社會至法治社會的轉變,以及在此期間,英殖民政府如何管理華人。
摘要(英) In the middle of the 19th century, in response to the development of the mining and plantation industry in Malaya, a great number of Chinese labourers migrated to Malaya in search of working opportunity. They didn’t integrate into other races in Malaya, but maintained their own cultures, customs when they started their new life in Malaya. When the masses congregated corresponding leadership and administration was needed. Therefore, the Chinese in Malaya formed a self-governing society, which means they ruled in their own way. The Capitan in Kuala Lumpur was the Chinese leader, and the secret society was the ruling organization. The Capitan was also the leader of secret society, thus, the combination of the two identities constituted a solid power structure. Although the British colonial government implemented the residential system, they implemented indirect rule for the Chinese by appointing the Capitan to govern the Chinese. The social problems of Chinese, for instance, arguments of interest between the employers and employees, consumption of opium by Chinese labourers, abduction of women, and the affrays of the secret society caught the attention of British colonial government. Consequently, the British colonial government changed its policy to direct rule and passed a law that required problems to be solved by decisions of the court. The Chinese protector was appointed to enforce the law, and formed the bridge of communication between the Chinese and British as well. The laws that were passed and the solving problem through decisions of the court indicated the change from self-governance to the rule of law. In other words, the ruling policy of the Chinese had changed from indirect rule to direct rule. Based on the framework above, the Chinese in Kuala Lumpur were made the subject matter for the study of the effects of changing from self-governance to the rule of law. In addition, the way the British colonial government governed the Chinese was also taken into consideration.
關鍵字(中) ★ 華人
★ 自治
★ 法治
★ 華民護衛官
★ 英殖民政府
關鍵字(英) ★ British colonial government
★ Chinese
★ self-governing
論文目次 緒論 1
第一章、華人的自治模式 14
第一節、華人移民與聚落的形成 16
第二節、甲必丹的形成與功能 22
第三節、秘密會社的形成與功能 30
第二章、華人與其社會問題 41
第一節、華工移民與鴉片 41
第二節、婦女與幼童 53
第三節、秘密會社 58
第四節、華民護衛司署的設立 61
第三章、英政府的法治管理 66
第一節、勞工與鴉片管治 66
第二節、婦幼保護 75
第三節、秘密會社管治 82
結論 90
徵引書目 99
附錄1 107
表目錄
表1:1910至1920年馬來聯邦華人與歐洲人錫礦總產量與百分比 19
表2:吉隆坡華人各籍貫人口百分比(1891-1921) 21
表3:吉隆坡義興公司首領名稱與籍貫 34
表4:雪蘭莪州海山公司首領名稱與籍貫 34
表5:1887-1914年進入與離開雪蘭莪州華人人口 42
表6:勞工法令演變 71
表7:婦女保護法令演變 80
表8:社團與驅逐法令演變 86
照片目錄
照片1:葉亞來 110
照片2:葉致英 110
照片3:葉觀盛 111
照片4:吉隆坡廣肇會館暨關帝廟 111
照片5:吉隆坡仙四師爺廟 112
參考文獻 (一)外文
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傳記:
Jackson, R. N., Pickering: Protector of Chinese (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1965).
(二)中文
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安煥然,《潮人拓殖柔佛原始資料匯編(1期)》(柔佛:南方學院,2003年)。
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期刊論文:
王明星,〈晚清政府兩次禁煙的不同成效及原因探析〉,《牡丹江教育學院學報》,2010年第6期,頁14-15。
朱東芹,〈十九世紀的華人私會黨與馬來亞錫礦業〉,《華僑華人歷史研究》,2002年6月第2期,頁54-62。
李佩瑩,〈海峽殖民地的華民護衛司〉,《政大史粹》,期5(2003年),頁95-110。
黃文斌,〈論析吉隆坡華人社區的形成與客家人的參與(1859-1920〉,《亞洲文化》,期32(2008),頁103-126。
黃麟根著,顏清湟譯,〈一九一四年以前西方企業以及馬來亞錫礦業的發展〉,《南洋學報》,期20(1965),頁19-47。
鄭惠明,〈華民政務司署史略〉,《南洋學報》,卷4期1(1971年),頁54-59。
傳記、報紙:
王植原,《葉得來傳》(新加坡:藝華出版印刷有限公司,1958年)。
許雲樵譯,〈葉阿來札記〉,《南洋學報》,卷13期1(1957年)。
《叻報》(新加坡)1908年5月16日,第一版。
紀念特刊:
吉隆坡赤溪公館編,《吉隆坡赤溪公館慶祝120週年即慈善晚宴特刊》(吉隆坡:吉隆坡赤溪公館,2005年)。
林家光主編,〈吉隆坡廣東義山簡史〉,收錄於《廣東義山千禧特刊》(吉隆坡:吉隆坡廣東義山,2001年)。
雪隆惠州會館編,《馬來西亞雪隆惠州會館第142週年會慶紀念特刊》(吉隆坡:雪隆惠州會館,2006年)。
雪隆廣肇會館特刊組編,《雪隆廣肇會館120週年暨義學80週年紀念特刊》(吉隆坡:雪隆廣肇會館,2007年)。
指導教授 陳鴻瑜、齊茂吉
(Hurng-yu Chen、Mao-chi Chi)
審核日期 2012-6-19
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