博碩士論文 982203010 詳細資訊




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姓名 林欣覦(Hsin-yu Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學學系
論文名稱 β位取代之Bodipy 衍生物及其在光伏打電池的應用
(β-substituted Bodipy (4, 4-Difluoro-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene) Derivatives and Their Application for Organic Photovoltaics)
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摘要(中) 本論文合成出一系列含PM-BDP (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene)或PM-BDP’ (2,6-diacetyl-4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4-bora- 3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene)結構之化合物。這些具對稱性之化合物乃是以PM-BDP 與PM-BDP’為電子受體,並在兩端以不同共軛長度的「共軛架橋」聯結可作為電子予體之二苯胺基(diphenylamine)來構成。PM-BDP 系列化合物在450−600 nm 波長處的消光係數為46,400−81,600 M-1cm-1,而隨著分子具有較佳的共面性時,化合物具有較紅位移的光吸收波長與較高的消光係數;而PM-BDP’由於在2號和6號位置增加三鍵架橋基取代的化合物有更加的共面性,因此有更佳的光收成,可達76,200−84,900 M-1cm-1。經由理論計算,可發現這些分子除了具有π−π* 兼電荷轉移吸收特徵,也有良好的消光係數。PM-BDP 基團與相鄰之thiophene 有較大之二面角 (47.1−55.0o),而PM-BDP’與共軛架橋的二面角 (11.4−12.7o) 相對較小。以此類含PM-BDP 結構之分子作為p-type材料,摻以PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester)作為n-type 材料,製作出BHJ 形式之有機光伏打電池(Organic Photovoltaic Cells,OPV)。當化合物FBF’ 與PCBM 以1:4 的摻混比例,並於溫度100 ℃下退火10 分鐘製作元件時,可得最佳的元件效率(1.50%)。同時,由於PM-BDP 與PM-BDP’系列分子的HOMO 能階較低,大部分化合物之元件都具有高開環電壓(VOC = 0.80−1.06 V)。PM-BDP’系列化合物有較佳的共軛,物理量測與理論計算皆顯示其有較強與較為紅位移之吸收光譜,但BBB’與2,7-CBC’在有機溶劑中溶解度較差,導致製成之元件效率也不佳。我們藉由原子力顯微鏡(Atomic Force Microscopy,AFM)觀看FBF’ 元件之表面型態(morphology),發現當與PCBM混摻比例為 1:1 時,材料表面有嚴重的堆疊而導致元件之電流密度較低;反之,當FBF’與PCBM 混摻比例為 1:4 時,元件之表面粗糙度相對較低,因而擁有較高之電流密度與轉換效率。
摘要(英) A new series of liner organic compounds containing 4, 4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8- pentamethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (PM-BDP) or 2,6-diacetyl-4,4-difluoro- 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (PM-BDP’) unit have been synthesized. These symmetric compounds have a common structural D-S-A-S-D motif, where D (diphenylamine) is the electron donor, A (PM-BDP or PM-BDP’) is the electron acceptor, and S is the π-conjugated spacer of different length. PM-BDP series of compounds have high molar absorption coefficients (46,400−81,600 M-1cm-1) in the region 450−606 nm, and the absorption coefficient and wavelength increase as the planarity of the molecules increases. Among the compounds, the PM-BDP’-based molecules with 2,6-substituted acetylene group have superior light-harvesting behavior (76,200−84,900 M-1cm-1) because of their better coplanarity. Theoretical computation on these molecules confirms that the longer wavelength absorption of the molecules indeed is π−π* transition with charge-transfer character. Therefore, they have large extinction coefficients. Except for the angle between PM-BDP’ and the neighboring thiophene groups (47.1−55.0o), all dihedral angles between two neighboring aromatic rings are fairly small (11.4−12.7o).The photovoltaic devices of BHJ configuration using these PM-BDP’-containing compounds and PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) as the donor and the acceptor, respectively, were also studied. The photovoltaic cell fabricated with the blend of FBF’ and PCBM in 1:4 ratio and annealled at 100 ℃ exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency (η) reaching 1.50%. Most of the devices fabricated with the PM-BDP or PM-BDP’ molecules exhibited high open-circuit voltage (VOC) in the range of 0.80−1.06 V, which can be attributed to the more stabilized HOMO levels of the PM-BDP and PM-BDP compounds. In spite of good light-harvesting behavior, the low solubility of BBB’ and 2,7-CBC’ in common organic solvents prevented formation of films with good quality, which led to low performance of the devices. This is further evidenced by the atomicforce microscopy (AFM) image a plethora of aggregation was found for the blend of FBF’ and PCBM in 1:1 ratio,which led to low current density (JSC). On the contrary, the AFM image of the blend film of FBF’ and PCBM in 1:4 ratio showed rather flattened active layer, which resulted in high current density and power conversion efficiency.
關鍵字(中) ★ 異質接面
★ Bodipy
★ 光伏打電池
關鍵字(英) ★ heterojunction
★ Bodipy
★ organic photovoltaics
論文目次 中文摘要 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i
英文摘要 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii
謝誌 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vi
圖目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii
表目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- x
附圖附錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- xi
一、 緒論 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1−1 前言 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1−2 太陽光譜 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1−3 太陽能電池介紹 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 4
1−4 有機光伏打電池介紹 ----------------------------------------------------------- 8
1−5 太陽能電池電壓–電流輸出參數及特性說明 ------------------------------- 13
1−6 研究動機 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
二、 實驗方法和過程說明 ------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2−1 實驗儀器 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2−2 實驗藥品及溶劑 ----------------------------------------------------------------- 21
2−3 合成流程 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
2−4 元件製作 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
三、 結果與討論 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
3−1 PM-BDP與PMBDP’化合物的合成與探討 -------------------------------- 58
3−2 化合物之物性探討 -------------------------------------------------------------- 63
3−3 理論計算 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
3−4 結論 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83
參考文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85
附圖 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91
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指導教授 林建村、陳銘洲
(Jiann-Tsuen Lin、Ming-Chou Chen)
審核日期 2011-7-15
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