博碩士論文 983204036 詳細資訊




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姓名 徐學賢(Hsueh-hsien Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學工程與材料工程學系
論文名稱 微銲點之微結構研究與同步輻射X光量測於先進構裝之應用
(The Study of Microstructure in Microbumps and the Application of In Situ Synchrotron Radiation X-ray on Advanced Electronic Packaging)
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摘要(中) 三維積體電路為近年來廣為討論的製造技術,不單是因為有可能打破存在三十年之摩爾定律,更具備了縮小體積、降低功耗、提升可靠性等特性。整體而言,若能善用3D IC之諸多優勢,將有助消費性電子與各式可攜式裝置朝向更加輕薄短小且高效能的未來邁進。在極小的構裝尺度裡,直徑不到20 微米的微凸塊接點,體積只有過往球陣列式凸塊的千分之一,其接點微結構組織往往直接影響的接點之可靠度行為。因此,不同以往的微結構組織變化也成為近年來微凸塊構裝技術的重要議題。本研究的第一部分將利用Cu pillar/Sn cap與Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni微凸塊,觀察微凸塊中的合金接點經過熱時效處理後之微結構組織的變化。在此有限的銲料體積內,Cu-Sn與Ni-Sn介金屬化合物隨著熱時效處理時間的增加而逐漸的佔滿整個接點。介金屬化合物生成的同時也大量消耗了金屬墊層。對此,我們將以動力學的方式來探討微凸塊中介金屬生長與金屬墊層消耗的相依性,並嘗試利用此相依性以預測不同時間點下的微結構組織。此外,在較短熱時效處理的Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni微凸塊裡,除了介金屬化合物的成長之外,同時觀察到些許的微孔洞生成於介金屬相的邊界。當熱時效處理時間增長後,可在微凸塊的中間發現較大規模的裂縫。此裂縫的生成很有可能造成接點接合不完全,而大幅降低接點之可靠度。對於構裝元件,構裝體內因材料間性質差異更可能讓封裝晶片產生更嚴重的失效行為。過往的量測方式卻受限於試片尺度、儀器解析度等,本研究的第二部分將利用同步輻射X光源之高解析度與高強度等特色,針對某特定待測區域進行量測。此非破壞性量測法使用,更能呈現量測條件對於試片的真實影響。本研究的第二部分將利用同步輻射X光臨場量測法,臨場量測die-to-interposer與embedded substrate構裝體內之Si晶片在不同溫度下之熱應變行為。此兩者構裝體內的高分子材料與Si晶片間熱膨脹係數差異而造成的熱致應力,會因為構裝架構的不同而呈現不同的熱應變分布。同時利用了數值模擬的方式,進一步證實臨場量測對於電子構裝之可信度。
摘要(英) Due to the demand for high performance and slim volume chips, 3D packaging has great potential over the coming decade. Micro-joints are a crucial element in manufacturing multi-function devices. The reduction in the dimensions of devices has led to a 1000-fold reduction in the volume of solder joints. It could reveal a different failure mechanism between microbump and conventional BGA bump. The first part of the thesis examines the microstructure of microbumps produced using Cu pillar/Sn cap and Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni systems following thermal treatment. Both reactive systems led to the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) throughout the entire joint area due to the limited volume of solder. It also led to the continuous consumption of IMCs formed by under-bump metallization (UBM) during annealing treatment. These observations were taken into account in the prediction of the kinetics behavior associated with the formation of IMCs and UBM consumption in the structure of microbumps undergoing thermal treatment. We also observed microvoids surfacing at the boundaries between the constituent elements of Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni microbumps. Thermal aging at 150 °C for 250 h resulted in the relaxation of stress induced by the growth of IMCs and led to the propagation of cracks across the middle of the bumps.
The minute size of modern electronic devices has limited the methods available for the analysis of dimensions and other physical properties. The high resolution and high intensity of synchrotron X-ray radiation makes it a good candidate for monitoring deformation behavior in devices with complex packaging. This study succeeded in performing in situ measurement of the strain distribution in Si dies using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The test vehicles included a die-to-interposer and an embedded substrate. It was observed that CTE mismatches between polymer-based materials and Si dies promoted the formation of stress in the dies following variations in temperature, which could compromise the structure of the devices. Numerical simulations were utilized to prove the feasibility of using in situ measurement in the evaluation of electronic packaging.
關鍵字(中) ★ 微凸塊微結構
★ 介金屬預測
★ 臨場應變量測
★ 同步輻射X光
★ 先進電子構裝
關鍵字(英) ★ Microbump microstructure
★ IMC prediction
★ In Situ strain measurement
★ Synchrotron radiation X-ray
★ Advanced electronic packaging
論文目次 Abstract (in Chinese)…………………………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract (in English)………………………………………………………………………………………II
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………………………………IV
Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………V
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………………………………VI
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………IX
1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Characterization of microbumps………………………………………………………4
1.3 Interfacial reaction in microbump………………………………………………6
1.4 Microvoids formation in the Microbump……………………………………9
1.5 Warpage issue for electronic packaging………………………………12
2. Motivation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
2.1 Microstructrue evolution of microbumps………………………………16
2.2 In situ x-ray measurement of advanced packaging………17
3. Experimental………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
3.1 Cu pillar/Sn Cap and Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni microbumps……………18
3.2 Microvoids observation in Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni microbumps19
3.3 Samples of advanced packaging………………………………………………………20
3.4 In situ X-ray measurement…………………………………………………………………24
4. Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………………………26
4.1 Cu/Sn and Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni microbump system…………………………26
4.1.1 Microstructure of Sn pillar/Cu cap and Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni microbumps……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………26
4.1.2 Kinetic analysis of the microstructure in the Sn pillar/Cu cap and Ni/Sn2.5Ag/Ni microbumps………………………………33
4.1.3 Prediction of IMC during annealing……………………………………40
4.2 Microbump for defect evaluation…………………………………………………46
4.3 In-situ X-ray measurement for advanced packaging……53
4.3.1 Strain distribution of Si die in die-to-interposer
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………53
4.3.2 Strain distribution of Si die in embedded substrate ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60
5. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………67
5.1 Microstructure evaluation in microbumps……………………………67
5.3 Strain measurement of Si die in advanced packaging68
References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………69
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指導教授 吳子嘉(Tzu-chia Wu) 審核日期 2014-7-24
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