博碩士論文 983206018 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳清輝(Qing-hui Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 以連續熱裂解程序降解飛灰中戴奧辛之系統建立與評析
(Construction and Evaluation of a Lab-scale Continuous Pyrolysis System for Reducing Dioxin Content in Fly Ash)
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摘要(中) 環保署之統計資料顯示都市垃圾焚化廠飛灰產量有逐年上升的趨勢,因此,如何妥善處理飛灰中戴奧辛,成為亟需解決的問題。本研究先前已建立飛灰批次熱裂解系統,並根據其成果與經驗,建置連續飛灰熱裂解處理系統。測試結果得知當高溫爐溫度控制於500oC時,飛灰熱解區之平均溫度可穩定控制於350oC。當反應器傾斜角度控制為1o、3o及5o時,飛灰於反應器中之停留時間分別為40、25及20分鐘,經熱裂解處理後飛灰中PCDD/Fs之毒性去除效率分別為99.84%、99.76%及99.44%,PCBs部分則分別為99.43%、98.25%及97.26%。研究結果指出隨著飛灰停留時間增加(傾斜角度減小),PCDD/Fs、PCBs之去除效率亦隨之提升。PCDD/Fs毒性去除效率部份,相較於高氯數物種(6-8氯),低氯數物種(4-5氯)之毒性去除效率較低,顯示脫氯反應亦發生於連續熱裂解反應器中。處理後之飛灰中PCDD/Fs毒性濃度均低於有害事業廢棄物之認定標準(1.0 ng I-TEQ/g),尾氣中PCDD/Fs濃度亦符合排放標準(0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3)。實驗結果顯示飛灰經熱裂解後PCDD/Fs之氣固相分佈主要殘留於固相中,只有少量(< 0.2%)揮發至氣相中。PCBs氣固相分佈部分,未受破壞之PCBs主要揮發至氣相中。添加5%氫氧化鈣於飛灰中,和未含添加劑相同操作條件相比,飛灰中PCDD/Fs、PCBs毒性去除效率皆有顯著提升。
摘要(英) Based on the Taiwan EPA statistics, the amount of fly ash generated by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) has increased year after year. Therefore, how to properly treat dioxin in fly ash has become an emerging issue. Batch pyrolysis tests for removing PCDD/Fs in fly ash had been conducted. Based on the experiences and results of batch pyrolysis tests, a continuous pyrolysis system is designed and constructed. Preliminary tests indicate that temperature in reactor can be stably controlled at 350oC as working temperature of electric furnace is set at 500oC, and the retention time can be controlled at 20, 25 and 40 minutes, respectively, with the corresponding inclination angle of 5o, 3o and 1o. Results indicate that total TEQ removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs are 99.84%, 99.76% and 99.44% with 40, 25 and 20 minutes of retention time, respectively. The PCB destruction efficiencies are 99.43%, 98.25% and 97.26%, respectively. Total TEQ removal efficiencies increase with increasing retention time. Furthermore, removal efficiencies of lowly Cl-substituted congeners (4-5Cl) are lower than that of highly Cl-sbustituted congeners (6-8Cl). It may be attributed to the significant dechlorination of PCDD/Fs taking place in the system. Besides, the PCDD/F concentrations of fly ash after treatment with this continuous system are lower than 1.0 ng I-TEQ/g of dioxin-containing standard for hazardous waste and the PCDD/F concentrations of flue gas are lower than 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. Regarding the distribution of gas- and solid- phase PCDD/Fs, the results indicate the PCDD/F congeners remain in the fly ash are significantly higher than that vaporize into the gas phase after pyrolysis. However, the trend of PCB distribution is opposite. Based on the same operating condition, TEQ removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs increase as 5% Ca(OH)2 is added into the fly ash for pyrolysis.
關鍵字(中) ★ 飛灰
★ 戴奧辛
★ 多氯聯苯
★ 添加劑
★ 熱裂解
關鍵字(英) ★ Pyrolysis
★ Additive
★ Fly Ashes
★ PCBs
★ Dioxin
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的與範疇 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 都市垃圾焚化爐飛灰來源及其基本特性 3
2.2 都市垃圾焚化爐飛灰中之戴奧辛 10
2.2.1 戴奧辛類化合物之結構 10
2.2.2 戴奧辛類化合物之物化特性 12
2.2.3 戴奧辛類化合物之毒性當量 13
2.3 飛灰的處理方式 15
2.3.1 生物處理 15
2.3.2 物化處理 22
2.3.3 熱處理 22
2.4 熱裂解 24
2.4.1 批次熱裂解 24
2.4.2 連續熱裂解 30
2.5 飛灰處理方式比較 34
第三章 研究方法與設備 36
3.1 研究方法與流程 36
3.2 批次熱裂解系統建立 36
3.3 連續熱裂解系統建立 39
3.4 飛灰基本性質分析方法與步驟 41
3.4.1 氯鹽分析 41
3.4.2 硫酸鹽分析 42
3.4.3 元素分析 43
3.4.4 重金屬溶出量 44
3.4.5 pH值 45
3.4.6 含水率 45
3.5 實驗之藥品、溶劑、材料、設備 45
3.5.1 實驗藥品 45
3.5.2 實驗溶劑 46
3.5.3 實驗材料 46
3.5.4 實驗設備 47
3.5.5 飛灰中戴奧辛及呋喃分析程序 48
3.5.6 飛灰中戴奧辛類多氯聯苯分析程序 57
第四章 結果與討論 69
4.1 飛灰基本物化特性 69
4.2 批次熱解探討 71
4.2.1 熱裂解後飛灰中戴奧辛破壞效率及氣固相分佈 71
4.2.2 飛灰中戴奧辛物種分佈之探討 82
4.2.3 添加劑對飛灰中戴奧辛裂解之影響 85
4.3 連續熱解探討 91
4.3.1 連續熱裂解系統測試 91
4.3.2 原灰PCDD/Fs分佈特性探討 92
4.3.3 戴奧辛毒性去除效率及裂解後戴奧辛物種分佈 93
4.3.4 添加劑對飛灰中戴奧辛裂解之影響 98
4.3.5 戴奧辛質量平衡與流向分析 103
4.3.6 飛灰熱裂解系統耗能探討 105
第五章 結論與建議 106
5.1 結論 106
5.2 建議 107
參考文獻 108
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64.環境檢驗所公告M801.11B「戴奧辛及呋喃檢測方法—同位素標幟稀釋氣相層析/高解析質譜法」。
65.環境檢驗所公告NIEA A402.11A「空氣粒狀污染物中硫酸鹽檢驗法—濁度法」。
66.環境檢驗所公告NIEA A403.10A「空氣粒狀污染物中氯鹽檢驗法—硝酸汞滴定法」。
67.環境檢驗所公告NIEA R118.02B「事業廢棄物採樣方法」。
68.環境檢驗所公告NIEA R203.02C之「事業廢棄物水分測定方法-間接測定法」。
69.環境檢驗所公告NIEA R208.04C「廢棄物之氫離子濃度指數(pH值)測定方法-電極法」。
70.環境檢驗所公告NIEA R309.12C「事業廢棄物萃出液中六價鉻檢測方法-比色法」。
71.環境檢驗所公告NIEA R314.12C「公告事業廢棄物萃出液中總汞檢測方法-冷蒸氣原子吸收光譜法」。
72.環境檢驗所公告NIEA R409.21C「廢棄物中碳、氫、硫、氧、氮元素含量檢測方法-元素分析儀法」。
73.環境檢驗所公告NIEAR119.00C「廢棄物焚化灰渣採樣方法」。
74.環境檢驗所公告R201.13C「事業廢棄物毒性特性溶出程序」。
75.行政院環境保護署,「廢棄物焚化灰渣材料化技術研究」,2003。
指導教授 張木彬(Moo-been Chang) 審核日期 2011-7-27
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