博碩士論文 983310006 詳細資訊




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姓名 白冠群(Omar S. Bah)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 在低開發中國家廢物堆肥系統的設計和計畫建立-以甘比亞的Banjul和Kanifing的廢物推肥系統為例。
(Establishment of Planning and Design Principle of Waste Composting System for Low Developing Countries – Cases of Composting System Design for Banjul City and Kanifing in The Gambia)
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摘要(中) 研究背景:甘比亞西邊臨大西洋,其餘各面國界與塞內加爾接壤,國土狹長 (長寬約400公里 × 30公里) 面積約為11,300平方公里,為非洲最小國家。甘比亞氣候乾燥,乾季長達7個月,僅六月到十月為雨季,降雨量850 – 1200 mm。無妥善之廢棄物收集系統及標準掩埋場,造成廢棄物隨意棄置為本國環境污染問題之一。本研究之目標場址為Banjul市與Kanifing都會區,目前此兩都市各有一座廢棄物露天棄置場,而甘比亞也無任何有系統的堆肥場,僅有居民將廢棄之蔬果或菜餚將之簡易堆置製造自己農地用的堆肥。
研究目的:本研究主要目的如下。
一、 針對缺乏廢棄物產量等基本數據之情形,提出可推估廢棄物數量之方法。
二、 藉用目標場址之堆肥場設計及操作條件設定之範例,提供甘比亞政府於廢棄物堆肥有關政策之參考。
三、 探討為低發展國家設計出經濟而實用的堆肥場之可行性。
研究方法:本研究主要參考世界銀行公布有關甘比亞於某特定年份之廢棄物產量、人口數、國內生產所得 (GDP) 等有限之資料,並參考文獻有關應用GDP及人口成長率與都市廢棄物產量關係之資料,提出推估Banjul市與Kanifing都會區自2012年至2021年 (本研究堆肥場操作期間)的廢棄物數量及性質。堆肥場之設計流程係針對甘比亞的經濟及人力素質,設計可實用的堆肥方法及操作條件。於投資經濟分析方面,採用「本益比 (Benefit-cost ratio)」為評估指標。
研究結果:本研究根據文獻所顯示都市垃圾年產量與GDP具有一定的正相關性,探討甘比亞之都市垃圾產量與其國內生產所得 (GDP)之關係模式,推估Banjul市與Kanifing都會區自2012年至2021年之廢棄物產量,並根據推估之廢棄物量及其有機類成份之百分比,提出一座設計容量為130 公噸/年之堆肥廠設計流程及操作條件。因投資及操作成本相當低,經本益比 (Benefit-cost ratio) 分析結果為1.55 ,顯示具有投資效益。
摘要(英) Study Background: The Gambia is the smallest country (~ 11,300 km2) on the African continent, lying between latitude 13 and 14 degrees North, and 17 and 12 degrees West. It consists of a narrow strip of land some 400 km long and about 30 km wide on both sides of The Gambia River. It is bordered to the north, east and south by the Republic of Senegal and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The population is about 1.3 million with an annual growth rate of 2.8%.
The country has a Sahelian climate, characterized by a long dry season (November to May) and a short wet season (June to October). Rainfall ranges from 850 to 1200 mm.
Environmental pollution caused by solid waste is a common phenomenon in the urban areas mainly due to irregular waste collection services and wanton open-dumping. There are no sanitary landfills and waste is dumped uncontrollably at official dumpsites such as the Bakoteh Dumpsite in the Kanifing Municipality and the Mile II Dumpsite in the outskirts of Banjul City. There have only simple composting heaps of vegetable scraps from the kitchen, or raked leaves for practical purpose of the residents to enhance farm soil capacity. However, there are no qualified composting facilities.
Objectives: The major objectives of this study are:
1. To establish a method with no proper data for analysis especially without waste generation rate.
2. To provide the planning and design information of composting including operation criteria for the policy decision-makers of The Gambia in waste management.
3. To Design an economical and practicable composting system suitable for the low developing country.
Research Methods: Composting design conditions under insufficient data on waste generation rates were overcome by multiple approaches using both direct methods of data acquisition from direct data from published and unpublished reports and documents from national and local governments. Waste reports from regular waste treatment facilities. The indirect method employed Population (MSW generation per capita/day), Economic growth using GDP and Reference to a similar country. The Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) was also applied to evaluate the viability of the project.
Results: According to the literature of some studies the correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation permit prediction of the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) for European countries and the USA. This study has correlated the annual waste generation and the corresponding figures of the gross domestic product (GDP), and demonstrates that the use of GDP figures and population growth data can predict the MSW generation rate in the Gambia. By the analysis of GDP vs. waste generation, the design of a composting facility for the target areas, Banjul City and Kanifing Municipality, is provide in this study. This study uses the indicator of benefit-cost ratio (BCR) during the service life of 10 years that is expressed in discounted present values to evaluate the investment performance for the proposed composting project and shows that the project can be accepted in investment.
關鍵字(中) ★ 甘比亞
★ 塞內加爾
★ 廢棄物收集系統
關鍵字(英) ★ Banjul
★ Composting System
★ Waste Composting System
★ Kanifing
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT I
CHINESE ABSTRACT VI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VII
LIST OF FIGURES XIII
LIST OF TABLES XIII
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.1.1 Introduction of The Gambia 1
1.1.2 Municipal Solid Waste Management Situation in The Gambia 3
1.1.3 Landfill site description and location in the two cities 4
1.2 THE PROBLEM OF MSW MANAGEMENT IN THE GAMBIA 7
1.3 RATIONALE FOR SELECTING GREATER BANJUL AREA FOR THE DESIGN CASE OF COMPOSTING 10
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 10
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 11
1.6 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 12
1.7 RESEARCH DIFFICULTIES 12
CHAPTER TWO: 13
STUDY METHODOLOGY 13
2.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF STUDY SITES FOR CASES OF COMPOSTING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR BANJUL CITY AND KANIFING. 13
2.1.1 Location and Climate 14
2.1.2 Population 14
2.1.3 Land availability and location 14
2.2 RESEARCH METHODS 14
2.2.1 DESIGN CONDITIONS WITHOUT DATA OF MSW GENERATION RATE PER YEAR 14
2.2.2 Determining Waste Generation Factors and their Relationship to waste 14
2.2.3 Forecasting Waste Generation 14
2.3 DESIGNED CONDITIONS FOR COMPOSTING 14
2.3.1 Source and components of wastes 14
2.3.2 Composting method (Windrow) 14
2.3.3 Composting capacity (tons/day) 14
2.3.4 Requirements of control 14
2.4 STUDY PROCEDURE 14
2.4.1 Population prediction method and forecasting solid waste generation 14
2.5 BENEFIT COST ANALYSIS (BCA) METHOD 14
CHAPTER THREE: 14
LITERATURE REVIEW 14
3.1 CURRENT METHODS USED TO ESTIMATE WASTE GENERATION AND COMPOSITION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 14
3.2 Relationship between Waste Generation and GDP 14
3.2.1 Waste generation amount and GDP in the European Union 27 (EU 27) 14
3.2.2 Waste generation amount and GDP for USA 14
3.2.3 Waste generation amount and GDP in the OECD region 14
3.3 CHALLENGES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 14
3.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 14
3.5 COMPOSTING: POTENTIAL, PROCESS AND CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 14
3.6 BENEFITS OF THE USE OF COMPOSTING SYSTEM 14
3.6.1 Potential Users and Uses of Finished Compost 14
3.6.2 The Benefits of Using Composts to Agriculture 14
3.6.2.1 Improves the Physical Properties of Soils 14
3.6.2.2 Enhances the Chemical Properties of Soils 14
3.6.2.3 Improves the Biological Properties of Soils 14
3.7 BENEFITS OF USING COMPOSTS TO THE ENVIRONMENT 14
3.7.1 Pollution Remediation 14
3.7.2 Pollution Prevention 14
3.8 Economic and Social Benefits of Composting 14
3.9 Composting Process 14
3.10 Challenges to Implementing Composting 14
3.11 Human Factors 14
3.12 Process Challenge 14
3.13 Place-specific challenges 14
CHAPTER FOUR: 14
STUDY RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 14
4.1 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION RATE ESTIMATION FOR BANJUL CITY AND KANIFING 14
4.1.1 Estimation of Daily Waste generation per capita in Developing Countries using GDP 14
4.1.2 Waste Generation Estimation using GDP in The Gambia 14
4.1.3 PROJECTIONS OF MSW GENERATION IN THE GAMBIA 14
4.1.4 MSW Organic Content Estimation for Composting in Banjul City and Kanifing 14
4.1.4.1 Waste Composition 14
4.1.4.2 Mass balances and quantities of solid waste 14
4.2 SOLID WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS 14
4.2.1 Composting option 14
4.2.2 Design Conditions and Considerations 14
4.2.3 Waste quantities 14
4.3 FEASIBLE COMPOSTING PROCESS AND PLANT’S CAPACITY FOR BANJUL CITY AND KANIFING 14
4.3.1 Composting System for Banjul City and Kanifing 14
4.3.2 Description of Windrow Composting Method 14
4.3.3 Compost Units Capacity 14
4.4 COMPOSTING DESIGN 14
4.4.1 Plant’s Capacity 14
4.4.2 Land Area Required 14
4.4.3 Facility Layout and Operational Optimization 14
4.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS FLOW 14
4.5.1 Waste Receipt and delivery 14
4.5.2 Preprocessing 14
4.5.3 Sorting 14
4.5.4. Reducing the particle size of the feedstock 14
4.6 TREATING FEEDSTOCK MATERIALS TO OPTIMIZE COMPOSTING CONDITIONS 14
4.6.1 Moisture Content 14
4.6.2 Carbon-to-Nitrogen (C: N) Ratio 14
4.6.3 Acidity/Alkalinity (pH) 14
4.6.4 Temperature 14
4.6.5 Mixing 14
4.6.6 Processing 14
4.6.7 The Composting Stage 14
4.6.8 The Curing Stage 14
4.6.9 Screening and bagging 14
4.7 COMPOSTING PERFORMANCE 14
4.7.1 Pollution Control Method during Composting 14
4.7.2 Product quantity and quality 14
4.7.3 Construction and operation costs 14
4.7.4 Benefit Evaluation of Composting to Banjul City and Kanifing 14
4.7.4.1 Cash flow statement of the Composting Plant 14
4.7.4.2 Financial Net Present Value (NPV) 14
4.7.4.3 The Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) 14
CHAPTER FIVE: 14
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 14
5.1 CONCLUSIONS 14
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 14
REFERENCES 14
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指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-li Liao, Ph.D) 審核日期 2011-7-25
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