The concept of team-based work has already become widespread around the world. Hence, the team performance framework has also become paid attention in the organizations. Group performance is thought as a vital determinant and frequently used indicator of organizational outcome, so we are hard to image that which organization was not based on team performance to execute their essential competencies (Naquin & Tynan, 2003). In the business survey, we can find many companies put their most efforts on realizing team-based work and try to get maximum benefits (Roomkin, Rosen, & Dubbs, 1998).
In the OEM-based high-tech industry, the corporate form their project teams by customer need, and operate their projects by outcome-oriented and flexible management. The critical key of its success was the extent of project support from other managers. This key would help project managers to develop their strength to attain organizational performance in the matrix structure.
In our study, Z Company gives project managers right to execute performance appraisal while managers finished each project. This right is equivalent with department managers’. The measurement is force distribution which account for 50% of the annual performance appraisal for project members and the result is highly related with their promotion and bonus.
This study conducted by the questionnaire and the interview method, and according to analytic results, we could find the following phenomenon in the Z Company after conducting project performance evaluation system:
1. The department managers’ power is weakening after members are assigned in the project team. During the project, project managers have a right to evaluate members’ work situation, including their overtime, ask to leave, travel or others. In this time department managers have limit power to involve and original organizational structure have changed.
2. The result of performance appraisal is directly reported for general manager, not through line managers’ report. The general manager could get big effect from the appraisal result by line managers and objective appraisal by cross-monitoring managers.
3. There are some transformations of responsibilities in the company. Project managers are assigned with appraisal right and asked to undertake the outcome of project. Traditional responsibilities of line managers are transformable.
4. In the company each project is evaluated by result-based. Thus, project members will lose department managers’ protection and the consequences could help company to break the departmental selfishness.
5. As mentioned earlier, by the project performance evaluation system, company can break the departmental selfishness. Each project manager is assigned by general manager and they only put their effort on project completion. In addition, while projects have the problem, general manager and customers can quickly find project managers and they would be responsible for those mistake.
This study claimed that in the ODM Company, it can get better performance result by executing project management systems. This system would cause not only high employee involvement, but also effective work result. Although there are still some problem need to overcome (e.g. internal communication, members’ pressure, institution development), project management systems are proved having positive influence on company’’s operating performance.
15. Aguinis, H. (2008),”Performance Management”, Pearson International Education.
16. Clements, J. P. & Gido, J.(2010) , Effective Project Management, 4e, 2010, 滄海書局
17. Daft, R. L.(2008), “Organization Theory and Design, 9e”, South-Western Press, USA
18. Davis, S.M.& Lawrence, P.(1977), “Matrix”, Addison-Wesley Publish Company, London.
19. Davis, S.M.& Lawrence, P.(1978), “Problems of Matrix Organization”, Harvard Business Review, May/June, P.131-142
20. Duncan, D. (1979),”What is the right organization structure? Decision tree analysis provides the answer.” Organization Dynamics (Winter 429) pp.149-163
21. Ezez, A., Lepine, J. A., & Elms,H.(2002), “Effects of rotated leadership and peer evaluation on the functioning of effectiveness of self-managed teams: A quasi-experiment”, Personnel Psychology, 55,929-948
22. Galbraith, Jay R.(1973), “Design Complex Organizations”, Addison-Wesley Publish Company, London.
23. Garvey, C.(2002), “Steer teams with the right pay”, HR Magazine, 47, 70-78
24. Hackma, J. R., & Wageman, R.(2005), “A theory of team coaching.” Academy of management Review, 30, P.269-287
25. IBM(1997), “Project Management Fundamentals Handbook”
26. Kerr, S. (1999), “Organizational rewards: Practical, cost Neutral Alternatives That You may Know, But Don’t Practice”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol 28, pp.61-70
27. Khandwalla, P.(1981), “The design of Organization”, Brace Publishers, USA
28. Knight, K.(1977), “Matrix Management: Across-Functional Approach to Organization”, PBI-Petrocelli Book, New York.
29. Lewis, J. P. (1995) “Project Planning, Scheduling and Control,” Irwin Professional Publish
30. Liz Maclachlan (1996) ”Making Project Management for You”, Library Association Publishing, London
31. Lovejoy, S. (1996), “A Systematic Approach to Getting Result”, Gower, USA
32. MacBryde, J., & Mendibil, K.(2003), “Designing performance measurement systems for teams: Theory an practice.”, Management Decision, Vol 41, pp.722-733
33. Marks, M. A., & Panzer, F. J.(2004), “The influence of team monitoring on team processes and performance”, Human Performance, Vol 17, 25-41
34. Meyer, C.(1994), “How the right measures help teams excel”, Harvard Business Review, Vol 72,95-101
35. Middleton C. J.(1967), “How to Set Up a Project Organization”, Harvard Business Review, Vol 5, No.2, pp.69-77
36. Naquin, C.E. & Tynan, R.O.(2003), “The team halo effect: Why teams are not blamed for their failure.”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 88, pp.332-340
37. Peter, T. J.(1979), “Beyond the Matrix Organization”, Business Horizons October, pp.15-17
38. Robbins, S. P.(1983), “Organization Theory: The Structure and Design og Organizations”, Prentice-Hall Inc., USA
39. Roomkin, M. Rosen, S. & Dubbs, N.(1998), “Human resources practices survey.” Deloitte & Touche, New York
40. Sayles, L. R.(1979), “Leadership: What Effective Managers Really Do and how They Do It. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
41. Scott, S. G. & Einstein, W. O.(2001), “Strategic performance appraisal in team-based organizations: One size does not fit all”, Academy of Management Executive, Vol 15, pp.107-116