博碩士論文 985202007 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳暐翔(Wei-hsiang Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊工程學系
論文名稱 以單一攝影機實現單指虛擬鍵盤之功能
(Virtual Keyboard Implementation Using Single Camera)
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摘要(中) 隨著科技的發展,人們漸漸習慣使用更人性化的科技產品,講求方便、直覺且容易操作的軟硬體設備。然而觸控式螢幕的日新月異,逐漸取代一般常見的輸入裝置,例如:滑鼠、鍵盤等等。除此之外,也開始有人用網路攝影機取像,並且以電腦視覺的方法分析,形成另一種的輸入裝置。
本論文提出一個以單一攝影機實現單指虛擬鍵盤之功能的系統,目的是希望能夠以網路攝影機取得並分析使用者輸入的行為,進而作為一種新式的輸入方式。首先我們利用霍夫曼直線偵測建立並且定位虛擬鍵盤,再利用背景相減取得手指和手指陰影的形狀,並將兩者分開以取得手指指尖移動的軌跡、方向、速度與手指陰影指尖的距離變化這幾項資訊來做一系列的分析和觸碰偵測;觸碰偵測部分我們分成了兩大類,第一類是手指陰影存在的情況,利用的是觸碰時指尖與手指陰影指尖距離變化的特性,第二類則是手指陰影不存在的情況,使用的方法是觀察指尖移動軌跡向量的變化和觸碰時指尖停留的特性來做觸碰偵測,最後再進行觸碰驗證與結果輸出。
在實驗部分,我們模擬了很多不同使用者的觸碰行為在數種不同的距離和不同的型式的虛擬鍵盤。實驗結果顯示,本論文提出的方法可以準確且有效地偵測不同使用者的輸入方式。
摘要(英) Due to the fast development of computer and video technologies, people are used to more humanized and convenient products. The touch screens are replacing other traditional input devices such as keyboards and mouse. Researchers have also been devoted themselves to designing new interfaces. Interfaces using webcams are one of the emerging interfaces.
This thesis presents a method to detect touches on a virtual keyboard using a single camera. We use a webcam to analyze fingertip touching actions. Firstly, we use hough transform to locate the virtual keyboard. Then, we separate the finger and the shadow to get the information such as trajectory, direction, speed and the distance between the fingertip and the shadow. Afterwards, we consider touches under two different conditions when shadow exists and shadow does not exist. We use the distance between the finger and the shadow to detect touches when shadow exists, and use the variation of trajectory and the time property to detect touches when shadow does not exist. Finally, we validate these touches by their locations and the frequency of touches.
Experimental results show that the proposed method provides a feasible way to detect touches on several kinds of the virtual keyboards with various camera distance settings. Moreover, the proposed method can be used in real-time applications.
關鍵字(中) ★ 虛擬鍵盤 關鍵字(英) ★ Virtual Keyboard
論文目次 Abstract I
摘要 II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
附圖目錄 VI
表格目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 相關研究 3
1.3 系統流程 5
1.4 論文架構 7
第二章 虛擬鍵盤建立與手指和手指陰影建立 8
2.1 前處理 8
2.2 手指與手指陰影分離 12
2.3 指尖偵測 13
2.4 手指陰影驗證 14
2.5 手指陰影指尖偵測 15
第三章 觸碰偵測 17
3.1 手指陰影存在之觸碰偵測 17
3.1.1 觸碰開始 20
3.1.2 觸碰 20
3.1.3 觸碰結束 21
3.2 手指陰影不存在之觸碰偵測 22
3.3 觸碰驗證 24
第四章 實驗結果 25
4.1 實驗環境與測試資料 25
4.2 參數取用分析 25
4.3 實驗結果 32
第五章 結論與未來研究方向 35
5.1 結論 35
5.2 未來研究方向 36
參考文獻 37
參考文獻 [1] Celluon.Virtual Laser Keyboard-Magic Cube, EvoMouse.[Online]
Available:www.virtual-laser-keyboard.com/.
[2] Microsoft Xbox. Kinect.[Online]
Available:www.xbox.com/zh-TW/kinect.
[3] D. Duan, M. Xie, Q. Mo, Z. Han, Y. Wan, “An Improved Hough Transform for Line Detection,” Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM), 2010 International Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 354, 2010.
[4] S. Sarcar, S. Ghosh,P. K. Saha, D. Samanta, “Virtual Keyboard Design: State of the Arts and Research Issues,” Students' Technology Symposium (TechSym) IEEE, pp. 289,2010.
[5] N. A. M. Isa, S.A. Salamah, U.K. Ngah.,“Adaptive Fuzzy Moving K­means Clustering Algorithm for Image Segmentation,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 55, pp. 2145-2153, 2009.
[6] K. L. Chung, Y. R. Lin, and Y. H. Huang, “Efficient shadow detection of color aerial images based on successive thresholding scheme,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 671-682, 2009.
[7] R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, “Improving shadow suppression in moving object detection with HSV color Information,”Proceedings of IEEE 2001 Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems. Oakland, USA, 2001:334-339.
[8] H. Liu, C. Yang, X. Shu, Q. Wang, “A New Method of shadow detection based on edge information and HSV color information,” Power Electronics and Intelligent Transportation System (PEITS), 2009 2nd International Conference.
[9] Q. Zhu, S. Avidan, M. C. Yeh, K. T. Cheng, “Fast human detection using a cascade of histograms of oriented gradients,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recog., 2006, pp. 1491–1498.
[10] L. Jin, D. Yang, L. X. Zhen,J. C. Huang, “A novel vision based finger-writing character recognition system” Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006. 18th International Conference,pp. 1104 – 1107.
[11] F. Quek, “Finger mouse: A freehand pointing interface. Proc. of International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition,” 1995, Zurich, Switzerlan.
[12] K. Oka, Y. Sato, H. Koike, “Real-time fingertip tracking and gesture recognition,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl., Vol. 22, no. 6, pp.64–71, Nov./Dec. 2002.
[13] S. Bi, D. Liang, X. Shen, Q. Wang, “Human Cast Shadow Elimination Method Based on Orientation Information Measures,” Automation and Logistics, 2007 IEEE International Conference, pp. 1567 – 1571.
[14] R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, A. Prati, “Detecting moving objects, ghosts and shadows in video streams,”IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intel., 25(10):1337–1342, 2005.
[15] S. Calderara, R. Melli, A. Prati, R. Cucchiara, “Reliable background suppression for complex scenes,” in Proceedings of the 4th ACM international workshop on Video surveillance and sensor networks, 2006, pp. 211–214.
[16] Z. W. Chen , Y. C. Lin, C.C. Chiang, “The design of a vision-based fingertip writing interface,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR).,Vol. 2, pp. 104-107, 2006.
[17] C.C. Hsieh, M.R. Tsai, M. C. Su,“A fingertip extraction method and its application to handwritten alphanumeric characters recognition,”Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems, 293-300, 2008.
[18] J. F. Canny, “A computation approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 1986, Vol. 8, pp.679-698.
[19] R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2000, ISBN 978-0-471-05669-0
指導教授 鄭旭詠(Hsu-yung Cheng) 審核日期 2011-7-20
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