博碩士論文 990202003 詳細資訊




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姓名 馬祖琪(Tsu-Chi Ma)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 遙測科技碩士學位學程
論文名稱 使用MODIS偵測地溫異常-熱異常和地震的相關性
(Thermal anomaly detection using MODIS data-Astudy of thermal anomaly as earthquake precursor)
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摘要(中) 台灣位處於太平洋西岸板塊碰撞的地震帶上,地震發生頻率高、強度大,易造成生命財產的損失。地震的發生是由於地殼內應變能量蓄積至其所能承受的限制時,地殼會產生突發性的斷裂與錯動,進而引發地震。在這突發性破壞現象之前,會先發生各種不同的物理或化學現象異常變化的徵兆,例如:地傾斜、地殼變形、地面隆起、地應力異常變化、地下水位變化、地下水顏色及化學成分含量改變、動物異常、氣象異常、氣溫改變、土壤溫度改變、地電、地磁、重力異常、有地鳴、地熱等。
眾多方法中,遙測領域裡可以應用熱紅外線影像對地表溫度做監測,找出是否有大範圍增溫,以預測地震的發生,此方法的優點在於:衛星影像取得容易、資料收集方便、且遙測影像可以獲得大範圍面積的資料,而大規模的地震易牽涉到很大範圍的地區出現異常現象。從研究及文獻中也發現,地震前熱異常現象可能為最早出現的徵兆,如果能先掌握熱異常現象,則可以做為其他前兆偵測預警的機制,提升其他徵兆監測及地震預報的效果。
本研究首先從文獻探討熱異常現象可能的發生機制及修改前人(Panda et al.,2007)研究的偵測方式,利用台灣地區已發生過大規模淺層強震(M>5)案例進行評估。在此研究中我們使用MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)影像作為研究資料,並改善了前人析地表溫度變化的方法。藉由未發生地震活動的日期資料建立出適合的背景資訊,以利於觀察同時態上地震造成的溫度差異。我們總共分析了近十年發生在台灣地區附近的淺層強震,希望能藉由對地表溫度變化的時空分析,累積更多對於地震前兆現象的觀察、紀錄、分析與探討。以利未來能對此異常現象進行監測,進一步運用於嚴謹精確的地震預報工作中,提供社會大眾高品質的地震預報。
實驗結果顯示,多數的地震在發生日的前3-7天就會開始出現短暫的地表溫度攀升情形(熱紅外異常增溫的機制),並在地震結束後開始降溫恢復平穩狀態。
摘要(英) When earthquakes happen, the Earth’s crust will release energy. Therefore, the abnormal temperature rise may portend future earthquakes. In many ways, the telemetry field can applied thermal infrared images to monitor surface temperature to know if there is a wide range of warming for predict the occurrence of earthquakes. The advantages of this method are the satellite images data is easy to access, and remote sensing imagery can obtain information on large area. The large scale earthquake prone a wide range of areas to show an anomaly. Some research and literature also found that the thermal anomaly before the earthquake may be the earliest signs. If we can grasp the thermal anomaly before earthquake, we may establish early warning mechanisms to enhance the earthquake forecast.
In order to gain an insight into the fact whether the existence of pre-earthquake abnormal temperature increase is a stable phenomenon, and also to detect this portend (for pre-earthquake abnormal temperature increasing phenomenon) in more scientific way, this thesis will first review literature documentations to investigate into the possible mechanism of thermal anomalies. This research will also adopt methods proposed by Ouzounov and Freund (2004) to conduct an evaluation of those large-scale strong earthquakes (M>5), aiming to find out the best process to detect the abnormal temperature increasing portend before strong earthquakes happened. The data used in this thesis is MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (MOD11A1). The result of this research shows: the pre-earthquake abnormal temperature can be detected by thermal infrared satellite images. By spatial and temporal analysis of surface temperature change, and to accumulate more knowledge to observe, analyze and explore for earthquake precursory phenomena. To facilitate future of this anomaly monitoring, and further used in a rigorous and accurate earthquake prediction work. We hope to provide the high quality large earthquake prediction in the community.
關鍵字(中) ★ 地震
★ MODIS
★ 地溫異常
關鍵字(英) ★ LST
★ MODIS
★ earthquake
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
Contents v
Contents of Figures vii
Contents of Tables viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Data Description 2
1.2.1 MODIS product overview 2
1.2.2 MOD11A1 Daily Land-Surface Temperature (LST) 7
1.3 Thesis Organization 10
Chapter 2 Background Theory 11
2.1 Physical nature of thermal anomaly 11
2.2 Mechanism of thermal anomaly 12 2.2.1 Earth degassing theory and geo-thermal theory 12
2.2.2 Seismo-ionosphere coupling theory 15
2.2.3 p-hole activation theory 16
2.2.4 Remote sensing rock mechanics (RSRM) 19
2.3 2.3 Magnitude scale of earthquake 21
Chapter 3 Methodology 24
3.1 Earthquake preparation area conception 24
3.2 Propose method 26
3.2.1 Image pre-processing 26
3.2.2 LST Differencing 30
Chapter 4 Experimental Results 34
4.1 Study data 34
4.2 Results 36
4.2.1 Pre-earthquake thermal anomaly 37
4.2.2 New ideas for the monthly mean temperature 48
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Future work 60
References 62
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http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/atbd -mod11.pdf
[2] Wan Z M. Collection-5 MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products Users’’ Guide.
http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/modis/LstUsrGuide/MODIS_LST_products_Users_guide_C5.pdf
[3] Tronin, A.A., 1996. Satellite thermal survey—a new tool for the study of seismoactive regions. International Journal of Remote Sensing 17, 1439–1455.
[4] Tronin, A.A., 2000. Thermal satellite data for earthquake research. In: IGARSS IEEE 2000 International Geosciences Symposium, Taking the Pulse of the Planet: The Role of Remote Sensing in Managing the Environment, Honolulu, HI, IEEE.
[5] Freund, F., Keefner, J., Mellon, J.J., Post, R., Takeuchi, A., Lau, B.W.S., La, A., Ouzounov,D., 2005. Enhanced mid-infrared emission from igneous rocks under stress. Geophysical Research Abstracts 7, 09568.
[6] Lixin, W., Chengyu, C., Naiguang, G., Jinzhuang, W., 2000. Remote Sensing Rock Mechanics (RSRM) and associated experimental studies. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 37, 879–888.
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[12] Tronin, A.A., Hayakawa, M., Molchanov, O.A., 2002. Thermal IR satellite data application for earthquake research in Japan and China. Journal of Geodynamics 33, 519–534.
[13] Brady, B.T., Rowell, G.A., 1986. Laboratory investigation of the electrodynamics of rock fracture. Nature 321, 488–492.
[14] Qiang, Z., Kong, L.C., Zheng, L.Z., Guo, M.H., Wang, G.P., Zhao, Y., 1997. An experi-mental study on temperature increasing mechanism of satellite thermo-infrared. Acta Seismologica Sinica 10 (2), 247–252.
[15] Pulinets, S.A., 2004. Ionospheric precursors of earthquakes: recent advances in theory and practical applications. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 15 (3), 413–435.
[16] Sedunov, Y.S., Volnvitskii, O.A., Petrov, N.N., Reitenbakh, R.G., Smirnov, R.S.V.I., Chenikov, A.A., 1997. Atmosphere Handbook (Reference data and Models). Leningrad.
[17] Cervone, G.; Maekawa, S.; Singh, R.; Hayakawa, M.; Kafatos, M.; Shavets, A. Surface latent heat flux and nighttime LF anomalies prior to the Mw=8.3 Tokachi-Oki earthquake. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 2006, 6, 109-114.
[18] Freund, F., 2002. Charge generation and propagation in igneous rocks. Journal of Geodynamics 33, 543–570.
[19] Freund, F., 2003. Rocks that crackle and sparkle and glow: strange pre-earthquake phenomena. Journal of Scientific Exploration 17 (1), 37–71.
[20] Freund, F., 2007. Pre-earthquake signals—Part II: Flow of battery currents in the crust. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 7, 543–548.
[21] Freund, F., Keefner, J., Mellon, J.J., Post, R., Takeuchi, A., Lau, B.W.S., La, A., Ouzounov, D., 2005. Enhanced mid-infrared emission from igneous rocks under stress. Geophysical Research Abstracts 7, 09568.
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[23] Ouzounov, D., Freund, F.T., 2004. Mid-infrared emission prior to strong earthquakes analyzed by remote sensing data. Advances in Space Research 33, 268–273.
[24] Choudhury, S., Dasgupta, S., Saraf, A.K., Panda, S., 2006. Remote sensing observations of pre‐earthquake thermal anomalies in Iran, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27:20, 4381-4396
[25] Wu, L., Cui, C., Geng, N., Wang, J., 2000. Remote Sensing Rock Mechanics (RSRM) and associated experimental studies. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 37, 879–888.
[26] Central Weather Bureau:
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[27] S. K. Panda, S. Choudhury, A. K. Saraf & J. D. Das, 2007, " MODIS land surface temperature data detects thermal anomaly preceding 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake ", International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28:20, 4587-4596.
[28] Dobrovolsky, I.R., Zubkov, S.I., Myachkin, V.I., 1979. Estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. Pageoph 117, 1025–1044.
[29] Ouzounov, D., and F. Freund 2004, Mid‐infrared emission prior to strong earth-quakes analyzed by remote sensing data, Adv. Space Res., 33, 268 – 273,doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00486-1.
[30] S. K. Panda, S. Choudhury, A. K. Saraf & J. D. Das (2007): MODIS land surface temperature data detects thermal anomaly preceding 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28:20, 4587-4596
指導教授 任玄(Shane Hren) 審核日期 2012-8-27
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