博碩士論文 991202011 詳細資訊




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姓名 黃寶金(Pao-Chin Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 英美語文學系
論文名稱 “Marvels of Motion”的真正迷人之處
(The True Attraction of “Marvels of Motion”)
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摘要(中) 此研究聚焦在1924-6年間由Max Fleischer的Inkwell Studios所製作的慢動作分析短片系列 “Marvels of Motion”,該片對攝影影像的動作再現與再製。此系列短片用不同方式展現同一個動作,首先通常用慢動作,接著結合停格、快轉或倒轉。此研究將回答兩個問題:第一,當1920年代再現動作已經稀鬆平常,動作主題是如何重新成為有吸引力的新奇事物。第二,這種把動作當吸睛(attraction)販賣的短片系列,在當時的發行與放映產業是為何且如何重要。
此論文將試著證明這個系列如何是動畫片,該片把攝影片段當作素材,供進一步的影像成像,並重新賦予活力給事前拍攝好的動作。換句話說,該系列把一般實景動作轉換成打鬧劇式的(slapstick-like)動作。這種俏皮活潑的動作處理方式,剛好為動作再現帶來吸引力與新意。研究方法屬質性研究與文獻探討,除了文本分析的證據,其他歷史資料來源自Media History Digital Library所數位化的美國電影產業雜誌與報紙,以及相關的文獻,像是探討動作研究、打鬧喜劇、與動畫。
本論文也希望提醒讀者:短片在當時1920年代中期電影院放映的重要性,發行商是如何針對短片為電影院節目貢獻的多樣性與娛樂加以行銷。
摘要(英) This research focuses on the representation and re-creation of movement from photographic images in a slow motion analysis series produced by Max Fleischer’s Inkwell Studios in 1924-6, “Marvels of Motion.” This series showed one motion in different ways—first at slow motion, and then in freeze frame, fast-forward or backward. This research will answer two questions: 1) how movement was again attraction and novelty when representing motion was nothing big deal anymore in 1920s, and 2) why and how such a series of short films that sold movement as attraction was important in terms of the distribution and exhibition industry at that time.
This paper will argue how this series are animated films that created and reanimated movement from photographic images, treated as raw material and as graphic images. In other words, this series are animated films that make caricature of camera-recorded movement—transforming live action into slapstick-like movement—and such a playful treatment of photographic movement is what turns representation of motion into attraction and novelty, resulting in an entertaining effect desired by the audience. Evidence will be drawn from textual analysis of the moving images, advertisement and reviews found in trade magazines and newspapers digitized on Media History Digital Library, the Fleischer Studios’ production aiming at novelty and cartoons, and the importance of short films as variety and entertainment input in theatre programs in 1920s. In addition to a close reading of the animation technique applied in the film, my approach thus is mainly historical research but related scholarship on motion study, slapstick comedy, and animation will also be adopted.
This research hopes to remind that short series contribute additional values to a theatrical program by bringing variety and entertainment in the mid-1920s and aims to explain how distributors sells shorts accordingly at that time.
關鍵字(中) ★ Marvels of Motion
★ Inkwell工作室
★ 動作研究
★ 慢動作攝影
★ 打鬧劇
★ 動畫
關鍵字(英) ★ Marvels of Motion
★ Inkwell Studios
★ motion study
★ slow motion photography
★ slapstick
★ animation
論文目次 中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
Table of Contents iii
List of Figures iv
Introduction 1
What is “Marvels of Motion” and the existent clip about? 2
Its Resemblance to Early Cinema 3
The Issue of Music and Narration in the Existent Clip 5
Chapter One: Recovering Novelty for Motion Study 14
An Idea of Motion 15
Using Slow Motion for An Entertaining Effect 20
A Playful Idea of Motion 22
Chapter Two: Bringing Variety and Entertainment 30
Before “Marvels of Motion” series began, there had been Novagraph… 30
Historical Records of “Marvels of Motion” on Trade Magazines 33
“Marvels of Motion”: Its resemblance to Cinema of Attractions 37
Variety Is the Key 45
Conclusion 58
Bibliography 59
參考文獻 Bibliography
Barry, John F., and Epes W. Sargent. (excerpted from Building Theatre Patronage: Management and Merchandising (New York: Chalmers Publishing Company, 1927), p.383-92.) Waller, Gregory A. edt. Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001.Gomery, Douglas. Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.
Bilton, Alan. “Introducing American Silent Film Comedy: Clowns, Conformity, Consumerism.” Silent Film Comedy and American Culture. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Boblitz, K. Sherwood. “Where ‘Movie Playing’ Needs Reform (1920).” (excerpted from The Musician 25 (June 1920), 8, 29.) Waller, Gregory A. edt. Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001.Gomery, Douglas. Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.
Boccioni, Umberto., Carlo Carra, Luigi Russolo, Giacomo Balla, and Gino Severini, “Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto 1910,” in U. Apollonio, ed., Futurist Manifestos, New York, 1973.
Braun, Marta. “Animal Locomotion” Piranio, Michelle, and Philip Brookman, edt. HELIOS: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change. Goettingen: Steidl, 2010.
Buchan, Suzanne. “Ghost in the Machine: Experiencing Animation.” Hilty, Greg, and Alona Pardo, eds. Watch Me Move: The Animation Show. London: Merrell, 2011.
Cavalier, Stephen. The World History of Animation. California: University of California P: 2011.
Eberson, John. “A Description of the Capitol Theater, Chicago (1925).” (excerpted from Architectural Forum 42, no.6 (June 1925), 373-6) Waller, Gregory A. edt. Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001.
Franklin, Harold B. “Motion Picture Theater Management (1928).” Motion Picture Theater Management (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran, and Company, 1928), 26-33, 128-38, 325-9). Waller, Gregory A. edt. Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001.Gomery, Douglas. Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.
Fuller, Kathryn H. “’You Can Have the Strand in Your Own Town’: The Struggle between Urban and Small-Town Exhibition in the Picture Palace Era.” Waller, Gregory A. edt. Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001.
Gunning, Tom. “Attractions: How They Came into the World.” Wanda Strauven, edt. The cinema of Attractions Reloaded. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2006.
Gunning, Tom. “The Attraction of Motion: Modern Representation and the Image of Movement.” Film 1900: Technology, Perception, Culture. Ligensa, Annemone, and Klaus Kreimeier, edt. New Burnet, England: John Libbey, 2009.
Gunning, Tom. "The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde", Wide Angle, Vol. 8, nos. 3 & 4 Fall, 1986.
Jokobson, Roman. “CHAPTER 2: Futurism” (Originally published in the Moscow journal Iskusstvo 7 (August 2, 1919). The English translation by Stephen Rudy appears here for the first time, with notes added by the editors.) Language in Literature. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 1987.
Keller, Corey. “Magnificent Entertainment: The Spectacular Eadweard Muybridge” Piranio, Michelle, and Philip Brookman, edt. HELIOS: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change. Goettingen: Steidl, 2010.
Rothafel, Samuel L. (“Roxy”) “What the Public Wants in the Picture Theater (1925)” (excerpted from Architectural Forum 42, no. 6 (June 1925), 361-4) (101) Waller, Gregory A. edt. Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001.
Peacock, Louise. “What Is Slapstick?” Slapstick and Comic Performance: Comedy and Pain. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Telotte, J.P. “The Double Space of the Fleischer Films.” Animating Space: From Mickey to Wall-E. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 2010.
Wells, Paul. “Thinking about Animated Films: What Is Animation?” Understanding Animation. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Works Cited
(from trade magazines and newspapers digitized on Media History Digital Library)

(a film program of LYRIC) Bisbee Daily Review [Bisbee Arizona] 23 May 1919.
(a film program of LYRIC) Bisbee Daily Review [Bisbee Arizona] 6 June 1919.
“McGraw O. K.’s Film.” The Washington Herald [Washington DC] 29 June 1919.
“Slow Motion Camera Perpetuates Art of Viennese Dancer.” The Washington Herald [Washington DC] 17 July 1921.
“The Week’s Headlines” The Film Daily 17 August 1924.
“Fleischer Novagraph—Max Fleischer: Absorbing and Novel.” The Film Daily 17 August 1924.
“Red Seal Pictures Corp.” The Film Daily 14 September 1924. P.24.
Hodes, Hal. “Notwithstanding the Prophets.” The Film Daily. 15 March 1925.
“The House of FEATURETTES” The Film Daily 16 June 1925.
“That Program” The Film Daily 21 June 1925.
“‘Marvels of Motion’—Fleischer Novagraph-Red Seal/ Short But Good” The Film Daily 13 September 1925.
“’Marvels of Motion’ Issue D/ Red Seal/ Slow Motion Specialties” The Film Daily 4 October 1925.
“‘Marvels of Motion’—Issue G—Max Fleischer—Red Seal: Novelty Action” The Film Daily 27 December 1925.
“’Marvels of Motion’ Issue H—Fleischer—Red Seal/ Interesting” The Film Daily 24 January 1926.
“‘Marvels of Motion’—Red Seal: Varied and Interesting” The Film Daily 22 August 1926.
“Producers for Red Seal Well Up To Schedule” Motion Picture News Sept-Oct 1926. P.1282.

“Alfred Weiss New Head of Red Seal and Inkwell.” Motion Picture News 27 November 1926. P. 2035.
“Red Seal Control Passes to Alfred Weiss, Once Retired.” The Moving Picture World 27 November 1926. P. 206.
Weiss, Alfred. “A Happy Outlook.” The Film Daily 5 December 1926. P.23.
“Seven New Film Industry Companies Incorporated.” The Film Daily 19 April 1937. P.18.
“In Memory of Alfred Weiss” The Film Daily 26 November 1940. P.2.
指導教授 李振亞(Chen-Ya Li) 審核日期 2016-8-31
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