博碩士論文 991205006 詳細資訊




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姓名 黃美華(Mei-Hua Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 歷史研究所
論文名稱 美國對華政策之研究(1947-1950)
(A Study of the U.S. Policy toward the Republic of China,1947-1950)
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摘要(中) 鑒於國府只是有限度的改組,即表面接納民社黨、青年黨與無黨派社會賢達人士入閣,但實際決策掌權者仍為蔣中正或反對政學系的CC系。司徒雷登曾告知蔣中正只要進行改革,華府便能以適當方式援助中國。國民黨與三民主義青年團合併後,華府認知到三青團主要由CC系掌控,全國行政雖以政學系為主,但國民黨在地方和組織系統皆由CC系所統治,原本黨團合併是希望消除國民黨與三青團之間存在已久的隔閡,反而讓華府認為黨團合併後須重新登記黨員可能一種改革或清黨,現階段難以預料此種改革和清黨的形式及性質,唯一知道的是CC系地位更加鞏固。
隨著中國局勢變化,華府遲早要面對國府垮臺後之局勢變遷,蔣中正對國民黨黨權已鬆脫,國民黨內部亦呈現分裂狀態。有鑒於此,國務院開始尋求能夠實踐改革的領導者。華府認為國府崩潰只是時間上的問題,在準備放棄蔣中正領導的國府的同時,也準備將中國大陸與臺灣分離。人民解放軍渡江後,莫成德認為有必要修正美國對臺政策,國府軍隊似不可能團結抵抗共產黨,且無論李宗仁與蔣中正爭權結果為何,國府僅剩區域性質,因而提出「精打細算但可隨機應變的不作為」政策來與國府保持距離。
華府放棄蔣中正所領導的國府後,選擇對臺灣袖手旁觀,希望與中共建立新關係。蘇聯與中共建立新夥伴關係後,國務院開始研擬如何挽救臺灣,將臺灣中立化,或是支持孫立人發動政變。韓戰爆發後,發動政變之想法暫時擱置,華府派遣第七艦隊來中立臺灣。
摘要(英) There was a limited reorganization of the National Government but it was one which failed to bring about any significant changes, namely the Socialist Democratic Party, the Youth Party and the non-party appointees to join the National Government, whereas Kuomintang refusal to permit the minority parties to organize and campaign freely for the elections and control by the CC Clique throughout National Government territory, in the same few hands and within this framework Chiang Kai-shek has continued to be the main determinative force in Chinese Government policy. John Leighton Stuart has told Chiang Kai-shek the U.S. Government will assist the National Government as long as reform. After consolidating the San Min Chu I Youth Corps with the Kuomintang, the U.S. Government recognized largely domination by the CC Clique on a local and organizational basis through with a primarily Political Science Group national administration, and the Youth Corps, largely domination by the CC Clique but also resisting that influence through army inspiration. As for the consolidation of the Youth Corps with the Party, it was a desire to eliminate the growing friction between the Kuomintang. Whereas the U.S. Government recognized there may indeed be reform and purge of a kind since the program for consolidation of the Youth Corps provides for a reenlistment of all Party members. It is difficult at this stage to predict what form it will conform to the desires and ambitions of the dominant clique. In this connection it should be noted that indications are the CC Clique has emerged in a stronger position than previously because it controls the Youth Corps.
The U.S. Government foresaw the ultimate collapse of the National Government with change occurring in the Chinese civil war on the mainland. Within Nationalist China the power and prestige of Chiang Kai-shek is steadily weakening because of the unsuccessful prosecution of the war under his leadership and his apparent unwillingness and inability to accomplish positive reforms. The principal dangers to the National Government continue to be the progressive deterioration of the military situation, the prospect of a breach in Nationalist ranks through the formation of regional political associations. While the removal of Chiang’s dominating personality would open the way for the formation of a broadly representative government under new and progressive non-Communist leadership. The U.S. Government faced up to the probability that disappearance of the National Government as they know it is only a matter of time. The U.S. Government isolated Taiwan and the Pescadores from the mainland while abandoning Chiang Kai-shek’s regime. With collapse of peace talks, virtually unopposed crossing of Yangtze, Livingston T. Merchant considered any united Nationalist military resistance to Communists appears improbable. Any resistance seems almost certain to be provincial or regional regardless of outcome showdown between Li Tsung-jen and Chiang Kai-shek for clear title as President disintegrating Republic. Merchant proposed a policy of calculated inaction colored with opportunism, hence the U.S. Government kept the National Government at a distance.
The U.S. Government took hands-off policy after abandoning Chiang Kai-shek’s regime, and developing new relationship with Communists. Chinese Communist Party formed an alliance with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, American policy-makers elaborated policies to prevent the Communist manipulation of Taiwan against the U.S. thereby. The outbreak of the Korean War, Truman announced that a naval force would be sent to neutralize the Taiwan Straits. Thenceforward, the plan of staging a Coup D′état on Taiwan is in abeyance.
關鍵字(中) ★ 國安會文件編號 37系列
★ 孫立人
★ 臺灣自由省
★ 臺灣局勢假設性發展
關鍵字(英) ★ National Security Council 37 series
★ Sun Li Jen
★ Taiwan Free Province
★ Hypothetical Development of the Formosan Situation
論文目次 中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目錄 iv
表目錄 v
附錄目錄 vi
緒論 1
第一章 1947-1948年美國對華政策 13
第一節 中國政局與國民政府改革 13
第二節 援華法案的通過 35
第三節 準備放棄蔣領導的國民政府 44
第二章 醞釀中國大陸與臺灣分離 63
第一節 等中國塵埃落定 64
第二節 分離臺灣 100
第三節 放棄蔣領導的國民政府 125
第三章 對臺灣危局之操作 139
第一節 對臺灣袖手旁觀 139
第二節 美國對亞洲之立場 161
第三節 企圖支持孫立人政變 166
結論 175
徵引書目 179
附錄 186
參考文獻 一、史料(微卷檔案、電子檔案、出版史料)

(一)微卷檔案

Confidential U.S. State Department Central File: China, 1945-1949 internal affairs. Bethesda, Md ; Frederick, Md. : University Publications of America, 1984, microfilm.
Confidential U.S. State Department Central File: Formosa, 1945-1949 internal affairs. Frederick, MD : University Publications of America, 1985, microfilm.
Confidential U.S. State Department Central File: United States-China Relations, 1940-1949. Bethesda, Maryland : University Publications of America, 1984, microfilm.
Confidential U.S. State Department Central File: China, Peoples Republic of China, 1950-1954 internal affairs, decimal numbers 793, 893, and 993. Frederick, MD : University Publications of America, 1985, microfilm.
Confidential U.S. State Department Central File: Formosa, 1950-1954 internal affairs and foreign affairs. Frederick, MD : University Publications of America, 1986, microfilm.
Confidential U.S. State Department Central File: China, Peoples Republic of China, 1950-1954 foreign affairs, decimal numbers 693 and 611.93. Frederick, MD : University Publications of America, 1985, microfilm.

(二)電子檔案

Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 45-48, July 22, 1948.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 12-48, August 3, 1948.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 27-48, November 19, 1948.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 77-48, December 10, 1948.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 39-49, March 14, 1949.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 45-49, June 16, 1949.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 76-49, October 19, 1949.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 19-50, April 21, 1950.
Central Intelligence Agency, ORE 7-50, March 20, 1950.
National Security Council 11/2, December 16, 1948, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 13/2, October 7, 1948, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 13/3, May 6, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 22, July 26, 1948, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 22/1, August 6, 1948, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 34/2, February 28, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37, December 1, 1948, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/1, January 19, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/2, February 3, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/3, February 11, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/4, February 18, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/5, March 1, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/6, August 4, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/7, August 22, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/8, October 6, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 37/9, December 27, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 41, February 28, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 48/1, December 23, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
National Security Council 48/2, December 30, 1949, Digital National Security Archive.
$125 Million Grant (1948), Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1948 361.13 Chiang Kai-shek, Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1949 306. 001 US Policy Toward Formosa, Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1949 Taiwan (Jan-Mar), Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1949 Taiwan (Apr-Dec), Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1950 306.0015 Nsc Papers 37, Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1950 306.0011 Us Policy Toward Communist China, Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.
Top Secret, 1950 Formosa And Hainan islands (Jan-Jul), Records of the Office of Chinese Affairs, Archives Unbound.


(三)出版史料

毛澤東,《毛澤東選集》,北京:人民出版社,1991年,卷4。
毛澤東,《毛澤東軍事文集》,北京:軍事科學出版社,1993年,卷5。
高素蘭編輯,《蔣中正總統檔案:事略稿本》,臺北:國史館,2012年,卷69。
葉惠芬編輯,《蔣中正總統檔案:事略稿本》,臺北:國史館,2013年,卷74。
高素蘭編輯,《蔣中正總統檔案:事略稿本》,臺北:國史館,2013年,卷76。
林秋敏編輯,《蔣中正總統檔案:事略稿本》,臺北:國史館,2013年,卷78。
周美華編輯,《蔣中正總統檔案:事略稿本》,臺北:國史館,2013年,卷79。
周美華編輯,《蔣中正總統檔案:事略稿本》,臺北:國史館,2013年,卷80。
Department of State, United States ed. Foreign relations of the United States, 1947, General; The United Nations, Volume I. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Department of State, United States ed. Foreign relations of the United States, 1947, The Far East: China, Volume VII. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Department of State, United States ed. Foreign relations of the United States, 1948, The Far East: China, Volume VIII. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948.
Department of State, United States ed. Foreign relations of the United States, 1949, The Far East: China, Volume VIII. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.
Department of State, United States ed. Foreign relations of the United States, 1949, The Far East: China, Volume IX. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.
Department of State, United States. Gleason, S. Everett; Aandahl, Fredrick, Editor, Foreign relations of the United States, 1950, National security affairs; foreign economic policy, Volume I. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.
Department of State, United States ed. Foreign relations of the United States, 1950, East Asia and the Pacific, Volume VI. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.
Department of State, United States. Department of State Bulletin. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947, March 23, 1947, Vol. 16, No. 403.
Department of State, United States. Department of State Bulletin. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949, January 30, 1949, Vol. 20, No. 500.
Department of State, United States. Department of State Bulletin. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949, June 19, 1949, Vol. 20, No. 520.
Department of State, United States. Department of State Bulletin. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, January 16, 19 50, Vol. 22, No. 550.
Department of State, United States. Department of State Bulletin. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, January 12, 1950, Vol. 22, No. 551.
Department of State, United States. Department of State Bulletin. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, March 27, 1950, Vol. 22, No. 560.
United States Senate, Military situation in the Far East: hearings before the committee on armed services and the committee on foreign relations. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951.

二、史料彙編

中央委員會秘書處編,《中國國民黨第六屆中央執行委員會常務委員會會議紀錄彙編》,臺北:中央委員會秘書處,1954年。
中華人民共和國外交部、中共中央文獻研究室編,《毛澤東外交文選》,北京:中共中央文獻出版社,1994年。
中國國民黨中央委員會黨史史料編纂委員會編輯,《革命文獻》,臺中:國民黨史史料編纂會,1953年。
呂芳上主編,《蔣中正先生年譜長編》,臺北:國史館,2015年,第8冊。
呂芳上主編,《蔣中正先生年譜長編》,臺北:國史館,2015年,第9冊。
呂芳上主編,《蔣中正先生年譜長編》,臺北:國史館,2015年,第10冊。
沈志華、楊奎松主編,《美國對華情報解密檔案:1948-1976》,上海:東方出版中心,2009年,卷一。
秦孝儀總編纂,《總統蔣公大事長編初稿》,臺北:出版者不詳,1978年,卷6下冊。
秦孝儀總編纂,《總統蔣公大事長編初稿》,臺北:出版者不詳,1978年,卷7上冊。
秦孝儀總編纂,《總統蔣公大事長編初稿》,臺北:出版者不詳,1978年,卷7下冊。
秦孝儀總編纂,《總統蔣公大事長編初稿》,臺北:出版者不詳,1978年,卷9。
秦孝儀主編,《先總統蔣公思想言論總集》,臺北:中國國民黨中央委員會黨史委員會,1984年,卷22。
秦孝儀編,《中華民國重要史料初編──對日抗戰時期》,第七編,戰後中國(三),臺北:中國國民黨中央委員會黨史委員會,1981年。
秦孝儀編,《中華民國重要史料初編──對日抗戰時期》,第七編,戰後中國(四),臺北:中國國民黨中央委員會黨史委員會,1981年。
Department of State, United States. United State Relations with China:With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1949. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.

三、憶述資料(日記、回憶錄)

(一)日記

胡適著,曹伯言整理,《胡適日記全集》,臺北:聯經出版公司,2004年,第8冊。
陶晉生編,《陶希聖日記:1947-1956 (上)》,臺北:聯經出版公司,2014年。
雷震,《雷震日記──第一個十年》,臺北:桂冠出版社,1990年,第1冊。

(二)回憶錄

李宗仁口述,唐德剛撰寫,《李宗仁回憶錄(下)》,臺北:遠流出版社,2010年。
陳立夫,《成敗之鑑──陳立夫回憶錄》,臺北:正中書局,1994年。
鄭錦玉,《碧海鈞沉回憶思錄──孫立人將軍功業與冤案真相紀實》,臺北:水牛出版社,2012年。
顧維鈞著,中國社會科學院近代史研究所譯,《顧維鈞回憶錄》,北京:中華書局,1983年,第6分冊。
顧維鈞著,中國社會科學院近代史研究所譯,《顧維鈞回憶錄》,北京:中華書局,1988年,第7分冊。
Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department. New York: Norton & Co., 1969.
Kennan, George F. Memoirs (1925-1950). Boston : Little, Brown & Co.,1967 .
Wedemeyer, Albert C. Wedemeyer reports! New York : Henry Holt & Co.,1958.

四、專著

王良卿,《三民主義青年團與中國國民黨關係研究(1938-1949)》,臺北:近代中國出版社,1998年。
王奇生,《黨員、黨權與黨爭―1924-1949年中國國民黨的組織型態》,北京:華文出版社,2010年。
沈志華主編,《中蘇關係史綱:1917-1991年中蘇關係若干問題再探討》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2011年。
沈志華,《解密三十八度線──中蘇朝的合作與分歧》,臺北:震撼出版事業有限公司,2013年。
林孝庭,《台海‧冷戰•蔣介石:解密檔案中消失的台灣史1949-1988》,臺北:聯經出版公司,2015年。
軍事科學院軍事歷史研究部等編著,《中國人民解放軍全史》,北京:軍事科學出版社,2000年,第5冊。
張淑雅,《韓戰救臺灣?解讀美國對臺政策》,新北市:衛城出版社,2011年。
楊天石,《找尋真實的蔣介石──蔣介石日記解讀(三)》,香港:三聯書店有限公司,2014年。
楊奎松,《中共與莫斯科的關係(1920~1960)》,臺北:東大圖書股份有限公司,1997年。
資中筠,《追根溯源──戰後美國對華政策的緣起與發展(1945-1950)》,北京:中國社會科學出版社,2007年。
劉維開,《蔣中正的一九四九:從下野到復行視事》,臺北:時英出版社,2009年。
Blum, Robert M. Drawing the line: the origin of the American Containment Policy in East Asia. New York: Norton & Co.,1982.
Borg , Dorothy. and Heinrichs, Waldo H. eds. Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relation,1947-1950. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War (II): The Roaring of the Cataract,1947-1950. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press,1990.
Finkelstein, David Michael. Washington’s Taiwan Dilemma, 1949-1950 : from abandonment to salvation. Fairfax, Va: George Mason University Press, 1993.
Grasso, June M. Truman’s Two-China Policy: 1948-1950. Armonk, New York : M.E. Sharpe, 1987.
McGlothlen, Ronald L. Controlling the Waves──Dean Acheson and U.S. Foreign Policy in Asia. New York : Norton, 1993.
Schaller, Michael. The American occupation of Japan: the origins of the Cold War in Asia. New York : Oxford University Press, 1985.
Schoenbaum, Thomas J. Waging peace and war: Dean Rusk in the Truman, Kennedy, and Johnson years. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.
Tang Tsou. America’s failure in China, 1941-1950. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1967.
Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. Patterns in the dust: Chinese-American Relations and the Recognition Controversy, 1949-1950. New York : Columbia University Press, 1983.

五、論文(期刊論文、專書論文、學位論文)

(一)期刊論文

沈志華,〈中共進攻台灣戰役的決策變化及其制約因素〉,《社會科學研究》,期3(2009年) ,頁34-53。
沈志華,〈共產黨情報局的建立及其目標──兼論冷戰格局形成的概念界定〉,《中國社會科學》,期3(2002年),頁172-187。
林孝庭,〈一九五0-一九五一年間美國海軍柯克上將在臺活動秘辛〉,《傳記文學》,卷94,期4(2009年4月) ,頁17-34。
屈山河,〈CIA檔案中的孫立人〉,《新新聞週刊》,第361、362期和刊本(1994年2月),頁16-33。
趙綺娜,〈美國親國民政府國會議員對杜魯門政府中國政策影響之評估〉,《歐美研究》,卷21期3(1991年9月),頁83-129。

(二) 專書論文

林孝庭,〈私人化的國家政策:蔣中正、查理柯克與1949-1951年間的臺美軍事與安全關係〉,收錄於黃克武主編,《遷臺初期的蔣中正》,臺北:國立中正紀念堂管理處,2011年 ,頁417-469。
朱浤源,〈孫立人與麥帥:一九四九年〉,收錄於何智霖編,《一九四九年:中國的關鍵年代學術討論會論文集》,臺北:國史館,2000年,頁285-328。

(三) 學位論文

邱炳翰,〈戰後中國憲政之路:以行憲前後的黨派協商為中心的探討(1948-1949)〉,臺北:國立政治大學歷史研究部碩士論文,2012 年。

六、監察院調查報告網址

http://www.cy.gov.tw/sp.asp?xdUrl=./di/edoc/eDocForm_Read.asp&ctNode=910&AP_Code=eDoc&Func_Code=t01&case_id=103000363
指導教授 齊茂吉 審核日期 2016-7-29
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