博碩士論文 991407003 詳細資訊




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姓名 林柏翰(Po-Han Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 增強空間能力: 性別差異與空間能力訓練
(Enhancement of Spatial Ability: Gender Difference and Spatial Training)
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摘要(中) 本研究旨在透過空間能力肌動理論(motor theory of spatial ability; Kosslyn, 1994; Wexler, Kosslyn, & Berthoz, 1998; Wohlschägaer and Wohlschägaer, 1998)來探究男女之間在心像旋轉(mental rotation)表現上的差異性以及提升心像旋轉能力的方法。肌動理論提出序列動作編序(motor planning)與心像旋轉擁有相同的表徵,以因此: (1)外在的旋轉歷程有可能用來推估內在的心像旋轉歷程,而 (2)手動旋轉的訓練有可能用於提升心像旋轉的表現。除檢視上述兩項推論外,本研究假設(3)男女之間在解題策略上的不同會反映在外在的旋轉歷程之上,而該策略(歷程)進而影響後續測驗題上的表現。

本研究利用運動控制系統讓受試者在心像旋轉測驗中得以操控觀察物件的角度,借以判斷測驗中的兩個物件是否相同。而透過動態追蹤科技,受試者在操控物件的歷程被即時性的紀錄下來。

實驗一進行性別、題型、以及旋轉物件的角度差三個變相的操弄,結果顯示男女之間在不同類型的題目當中的旋轉歷程不同,而該歷程也與測驗的表現相關,實驗二探究是否可以透過手動旋轉來提高心像旋轉的表現,結果發現,較於觀察學習,男女在手動旋轉的訓練上有顯著的成長差異,女性有著較大的進步。實驗三從旋轉歷程當中提出更多的策略行做為表現指標,並顯示高低能力者在某些策略行的使用數量上有差異。綜合上述,本研究指出探究手動旋轉歷程有助於瞭解心像旋轉的歷程的價值,但仍處於搖籃時期。
摘要(英) This dissertation examined the motor theory of spatial ability, which postulated that motor planning and mental rotation (MR) process shared the same representation. It is, thus, possible that: (1) extrinsic rotational path during a manual rotation (motor process) could reveal the intrinsic MR process and that (2) training in manual rotation could enhance MR performance. This dissertation tested these two possibilities and tried to seek for (3) the cause of gender differences in MR based on the rotational path data. Taking the advantages of motion-tracking technology, rotational path of how participant solved a MR task can be recorded. It is hypothesized that differences in strategic preference between genders cause differential rotational path and affect the performance subsequently.

Study 1 showed that rotational path in a manual rotation differed across trial types and genders. More importantly, rotational path is related to performance. Study 2 illustrated that manual rotation elicited differential training effect between genders and induced higher acceptance rating than passive-observational training. Study 3 indicated that specific pause behaviors in a manual rotation can be meaningful performance indicators. Results showed that differential use frequency on some specific pattern of behaviors (composed based on the pause behaviors) contributed to overall MR performance. Study 4 provided further evidence in supporting that that initial observation behavior (one of the pause behaviors tested in Study 3) corresponds to the encoding process in MR process.

This dissertation contributed in providing innovated measurements based on manual rotation. Rotational path measurements can be useful in investigating the underlying cognitive process of MR.
關鍵字(中) ★ 空間能力
★ 心像旋轉
★ 性別差異
★ 空間能力訓練
★ 手動旋轉
關鍵字(英) ★ Spatial Ability
★ Mental Rotation
★ Gender Difference
★ Spatial Training
★ Manual Rotation
論文目次 Table of Contents

Abstract (In Chinese) i
Abstract (In English) ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii
Chapter 1: Introduction: Research Background and Purpose 01
1.1.Significance of Spatial Abilities 01
1.2.Issues in Spatial Ability Training 02
1.3.Motivation and Research Direction 04
1.4.Purposes 07
1.5.Goals 09
1.6.Research Questions 10
1.7.Research Hypothesis 11
1.8.Definition of Terms 13
Chapter 2: Literature Review 14
2.1.Spatial Ability and Mental Rotation (MR) Ability 14
2.1.1.Gender Differences in MR 15
2.1.2.Strategic Hypothesis and its Application 17
2.2.Basic Spatial Ability Training 20
2.2.1.Central Debate in Spatial Ability Training 20
2.2.2.Necessity of a Modified Mental Rotation Task (MRT) 21
2.3.Motor Process and Mental Rotation 24
2.3.1.Neurophysiological Studies 25
2.3.2.Physical Training (or Expertise) Studies 28
2.3.3.Psychological Behavioral Studies 30
2.3.4.Other Manual Rotation Studies 35
2.4.Issues Related to Manual Rotational Training 36
2.4.1.Effectiveness of Manual Training 37
2.4.2.Training Exposure Duration 40
2.4.3.Individual Differences and Learning Effect Duration 42
Chapter 3: Study 1: Rotational Path Experiment 45
3.1. Introduction: Goal and Hypothesis 45
3.2. Method: Experiment 1 47
3.3. Results: Experiment 1 51
3.4. Discussion: Experiment 1 55
3.5. Experiment 2 57
3.6 Method: Experiment 2 59
3.7. Results: Experiment 2 61
3.8. Discussion 67
3.9. Conclusion 71
Chapter 4: Study 2: Spatial Training Experiment 73
4.1. Introduction 73
4.2. Method 76
4.3. Results and Discussion 80
4.4 Limitation and Conclusion 84
Chapter 5: Study 3: Strategic Pattern Analysis Experiment 87
5.1. Introduction 87
5.2. Method 97
5.3. Results 101
5.3.1. Experiment 1 101
5.3.2. Experiment 2 102
5.3.2.1. Performance analysis (Accuracy, RT, and Path Efficiency) 102
5.3.2.2. Motion Data Analysis 107
5.3.2.3. Pattern of Behavior Analysis 110
5.3.2.4. Reorganization of the Data (High and Low Performers) 113
5.4. General Discussion 116
5.5. Study Limitations 119
5.6. Conclusion 121
Chapter 6: Study 4: Influences of Perception on Strategy Experiment 123
6.1. Introduction 123
6.2. Hypotheses and Prediction: 126
6.3. Method 128
6.4. Results 128
6.5. Discussion 134
6.6. Conclusion 140
Chapter 7: Overall Discussion 141
7.1. Limitation 145
7.2. Future Recommendation 150
Chapter 8 Conclusion 153
References 154
Appendix A Technology Acceptance Model Survey Questionnaire 171
Appendix B Informed Consent Form for Research Participation 172
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指導教授 柯華葳、葉士青(Hwa-Wei Ko Shih-Ching Yeh) 審核日期 2015-7-29
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