博碩士論文 992207004 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:6 、訪客IP:3.233.219.62
姓名 施欣怡(Hsin-Yi Shih)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱
(The acquisition of Chinese literacy as a second language correlates with statistical learning of implicit transitional probability)
相關論文
★ The influence of experience on the SNARC effect -the mapping between sequential information and spatial representation★ 中文名詞動詞的具體效果的神經相關活動
★ 字形和語意對短期記憶的影響: 從行為及腦造影實驗而來的證據★ 中文字音與字形相似度對語言短期記憶之影響
★ 非語音訊息對中英雙語使用者的語言短期記憶的貢獻★ 中文短期記憶之字形表徵研究
★ The temporal dynamics of the code-switching between alphabetic and logographic languages in unbalancedChinese-English bilinguals★ 以行為及腦造影證據探討英文字音及字形相似效果對中英雙語使用者之短期記憶的影響
★  The behavioral and neural correlates of orthographic lexicon and orthographic buffer in Chinese writing★ How the Brain Deals with the Asymmetry between Chinese Subject and Object Relative Clauses: Support for a Dynamic Processing Theory
★ EXPLORATION OF THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE USING FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS★ 視知覺相關能力以及統計學習能力對中文識字學習的影響:來自以中文為母語或外語學習者的證據
★ Correlation of statistical learning of different implicit transitional probabilities with Chinese literacy acquisition in non-native adult learners★ 字形相似性、字義相似性以及視覺相似性對於中文工作記憶的影響
★ The Characteristics and Neurophysiological Correlates of Componential Visual Statistical Learning★ 金錢酬賞之來源與其分配對公平性感知的影響
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 近期的研究發現,統計學習能力不只和拼音語言中的母語識字學習 (literacy) 有關,且與拼音語言的第二語識字學習表現亦息息相關。然而,統計學習能力與非拼音語言作為第二語的識字學習能力之間的關係,在過去的研究中,並沒有清楚的討論。因此,本研究的目的在於探討統計學習能力這種找尋隱藏在序列訊息中之規律的能力,以及聽覺和語音處理能力是否能夠有效預測成年人學習中文為第二語時識字程度之表現。
實驗一結果顯示母語為拼音語言的受試者之中文識字表現與學習中文時間長短以及視覺統計學習能力表現呈現顯著相關。此外,透過迴歸統計分析,在排除智商、工作記憶等變項之影響後,視覺統計學習能力仍可有效預測外籍受試者的中文識字量。實驗二則是追蹤受試者之中文識字程度的發展,並進一步檢驗其與上述之可能預測因子之間的關係。實驗結果顯示,整體而言,曾經參與實驗一且參與了實驗二的受試者,於實驗二的中文識字能力表現顯著優於實驗一。儘管相關與迴歸分析結果顯示,中文識字學習能力與所有的預測因子並無顯著相關,然而進一步的分析指出,在實驗一與實驗二間隔的六個月間仍持續修習中文課程者,其進步幅度較未修習者大,此效果尤其可見於閱讀流暢度測驗的表現。實驗結果亦顯示,對於在過去六個月間並未繼續修習中文課程的受試者而言,其中文識字學習表現與視覺統計學習能力 (VSL) 呈現顯著相關。整體來說,正式的授課與教學整體而言提升了受試者中文識字能力的表現,而統計學習能力之表現對於中文識字能力表現的影響,尤其顯現於受試者沒有繼續透過正式課程學習中文的情況下。
總結本研究,統計學習能力是學習中文作為第二語之識字學習表現的重要預測因子。這結果與先前來自拼音語言之研究結果相符,亦即無論作為母語或是第二語學習,統計學習能力對於識字學習表現皆有重要影響。此外,本研究結果顯示,此種找尋內隱規則並計算項目之間關聯機率的能力對於識字學習表現之影響,不僅見於拼音語言,在中文的學習過程中,亦可見其與中文識字學習能力息息相關。
摘要(英) Recent findings have indicated that statistical learning ability correlates with literacy acquisition of alphabetic languages both as a first and a second language. However, it was unclear whether the correlation was demonstrated only in alphabetic languages or not. In the present study, we examined whether the same ability of detecting statistical regularities embedded in sequential stimuli, as well as the abilities of auditory perception and phonological processing, predict the literacy level in adults who learn Chinese as a second language.
Cross-sectional results from native speakers of alphabetic languages showed that the performance of Chinese literacy was significantly correlated with the time participants spent on learning Chinese and their performance on statistical learning of visual stimuli (VSL). The regression analysis further revealed that VSL accounted for unique variance of the size of Chinese characters that participants know even when the contribution from other variables, intelligence, and working memory was considered.
The follow-up research examined whether the potential factors have influence on the development of Chinese literacy. Analysis of the data from all remaining participants who were tested in both Experiment 1 and 2 did detect obvious improvement of Chinese literacy. Correlation and regression results showed no significant relationship between all the predictor variables and Chinese literacy. However, further analysis indicated that participants who continued studying Chinese during the past six months between Experiment 1 and 2 had greater improvements in Chinese literacy, especially in reading fluency. Significant correlation was also observed between the improvement of Chinese literacy indices and the performance of VSL for participants who did not continue taking formal Chinese courses. That is, formal instructions generally improved the performance of Chinese literacy, while the performance of VSL had impacts on Chinese literacy acquisition, especially when formal instruction was not available.
To conclude, the current study suggests that the ability of statistical learning is a critical predicting factor for learning Chinese as L2. These results are compatible with previous research that statistical learning ability has association with literacy acquisition both for L1 and L2. Moreover, the results demonstrated that not only in alphabetic languages, but also in Chinese, the ability to extract regularities and to compute transitional probability is greatly correlated with literacy acquisition.
關鍵字(中) ★ 第二語學習
★ 內隱學習
關鍵字(英) ★ second language acquisition
★ implicit learning
★ logographic languages
論文目次 Table of Content
Abstract III
論文摘要 V
List of figures XIII
List of tables XV
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Phonological processing skills 2
1.1.1 Evidence of the relationship between phonological short-term memory and literacy acquisition 2
1.1.2 Evidence of the relationship between phonological decoding in lexical access and literacy acquisition 3
1.1.3 Evidence of the relationship between phonological awareness and literacy acquisition 4
1.1.4 The relationship between phonological processing skills and Chinese literacy acquisition 5
1.2 Importance of auditory processing ability 8
1.2.1 The relationship between auditory processing ability and literacy acquisition of alphabetic languages 8
1.2.2 The relationship between auditory processing ability and Chinese literacy acquisition 10
1.2.3 The anchoring-deficit hypothesis 11
1.2.4 The importance of reference 13
1.3 Statistical learning ability 14
1.3.1 The relationship between statistical learning ability and L1 acquisition 14
1.3.2 The relationship between auditory statistical learning ability and L2 literacy acquisition 18
1.4 Aim of the current study 20
2 Experiment 1: Cross-sectional research 21
2.1 Participants 21
2.1.1 Linguistic background 21
2.2 Design and materials 22
2.2.1 General cognitive abilities 22
2.2.2 Chinese literacy 23
2.2.3 Auditory processing skills 25
2.2.4 Statistical learning ability 26
2.3 Procedures 28
2.4 Results and discussions 28
2.4.1 Descriptive statistics 28
2.4.2 Correlation between Chinese literacy tests 30
2.4.3 Correlation between Chinese literacy tests and other cognitive tests 33
2.4.4 Regression analysis 36
2.4.5 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) 38
2.5 Summary 39
3 Experiment 2: Follow-up research 40
3.1 Participants 40
3.2 Design and materials 40
3.2.1 Chinese literacy 40
3.2.2 General cognitive ability 41
3.3 Procedures 41
3.4 Results and discussions 42
3.4.1 Descriptive statistics 42
3.4.2 Correlation between Chinese literacy tests 45
3.4.3 Correlation between Chinese literacy tests and other cognitive tests 48
3.5 Summary 54
4 General discussion 55
4.1 A summary of results in the current study 55
4.2 The relationship between VSL and Chinese literacy development 56
4.3 The relationship between VSL and Chinese literacy acquisition 58
4.4 The relationship between performance of VSL and reasoning 59
4.5 The relationship between VSL and phonological processing skills for both L1 and L2 learners 60
4.6 RAN as an index of phonological processing abilities or of Chinese literacy 62
4.7 The possible reasons that the effect shows on VSL but not on ASL 63
5 Conclusion 66
Reference 68
Appendix 74
參考文獻 Reference
Ahissar, M. (2007). Dyslexia and the anchoring-deficit hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(11), 458–465. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.015
Ahissar, M., Protopapas, A., Reid, M., & Merzenich, M. M. (2000). Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(12), 6832.
Arciuli, J., & Simpson, I. C. (2011). Statistical learning in typically developing children: the role of age and speed of stimulus presentation. Developmental Science, 14(3), 464–473. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00937.x
Aslin, R. N., Saffran, J. R., & Newport, E. L. (1998). Computation of conditional probability statistics by 8-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 9(4), 321–324.
Banai, K., & Ahissar, M. (2005). Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Task or Stimulus Related? Cerebral Cortex, 16(12), 1718–1728. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhj107
Banai, K., & Ahissar, M. (2010). On the importance of anchoring and the consequences of its impairment in dyslexia. (A. Fawcett & S. Vicari, Eds.)Dyslexia, 16(3), 240–257. doi:10.1002/dys.407
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organisation as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271(5647), 746–747.
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature.
Chow, B. W.-Y., McBride-Chang, C., & Burgess, S. (2005). Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(1), 81–87. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.97.1.81
Denckla, M. B., & Cutting, L. E. (1999). History and significance of rapid automatized naming. Annals of Dyslexia, 49(1), 29–42.
Evans, J. L., Saffran, J. R., & Robe-Torres, K. (2009). Statistical learning in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52(2), 321.
Frost, R., Siegelman, N, Narkiss, A., & Afek, L. (in press). What predicts successful literacy acquisition in a second language?Psychological Science.
Gathercole, S. E., Hitch, G. J., Adams, A. M., & Martin, A. J. (1999). Phonological short‐term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13(1), 65–77.
Gleitman, L. R. (1985). Orthographic Resources Affect Reading Acquisition--If They Are Used. Remedial and Special Education, 6(6), 24–36. doi:10.1177/074193258500600606
Graf Estes, K., Evans, J. L., Alibali, M. W., & Saffran, J. R. (2007). Can infants map meaning to newly segmented words? Statistical segmentation and word learning. Psychological Science, 18(3), 254–260. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01885.x
Gómez, R. L., & Gerken, L. (1998). Determining the basis of abstraction in artificial language acquisition. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 434.
Ho, C. S. H., Law, T. P. S., & Ng, P. M. (2000). The phonological deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 13(1), 57–79.
Ho, C. S., & Bryant, P. (1997). Development of phonological awareness of Chinese children in Hong Kong. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 26(1), 109–126.
Hu, C. F., & Catts, H. W. (1998). The Role of Phonological Processing in Early Reading Ability: What We Can Learn From Chinese. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2(1), 55–79.
Huang, H. S., & Hanley, J. R. (1995). Phonological awareness and visual skills in learning to read Chinese and English. Cognition, 54(1), 73–98.
Koyama, M. S., Hansen, P. C., & Stein, J. F. (2008). Logographic Kanji versus Phonographic Kana in Literacy Acquisition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145(1), 41–55. doi:10.1196/annals.1416.005
Koyama, M. S., Stein, J. F., Stoodley, C. J., & Hansen, P. C. (2010). Functional MRI evidence for the importance of visual short-term memory in logographic reading. European Journal of Neuroscience, 33(3), 539–548. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07534.x
Lee, C.-Y. (2009). The Cognitive and neural basis for learning to read Chinese. Journal of Basic Education, 18 (2) 63-85.
Lee, C.-Y., Tsai, J.-L., Huang, H.-W., Hung, D. L., & Tzeng, O. J. L. (2006). The temporal signatures of semantic and phonological activations for Chinese sublexical processing: An event-related potential study. Brain Research, 1121(1), 150–159. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.08.117
Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Petersen, O.-P. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 263–284.
McArthur, G. M., & Bishop, D. V. M. (2004). Frequency discrimination deficits in people with specific language impairment: reliability, validity, and linguistic correlates. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(3), 527–541. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/041)
McBride-Chang, C., & Ho, C. S.-H. (2000). Developmental issues in Chinese children’s character acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 50–55. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.92.1.50
McBride-Chang, C., & Manis, F. R. (1996). Structural invariance in the associations of naming speed, phonological awareness, and verbal reasoning in good and poor readers: A test of the double deficit hypothesis. Reading and Writing, 8(4), 323–339.
McBride-Chang, C., Bialystok, E., Chong, K. K. Y., & Li, Y. (2004). Levels of phonological awareness in three cultures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89(2), 93–111. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2004.05.001
McBride-Chang, C., Chow, B. W. Y., Zhong, Y., Burgess, S., & Hayward, W. G. (2005). Chinese character acquisition and visual skills in two Chinese scripts. Reading and Writing, 18(2), 99–128. doi:10.1007/s11145-004-7343-5
Meng, X., Sai, X., Wang, C., Wang, J., Sha, S., & Zhou, X. (2005). Auditory and speech processing and reading development in Chinese school children: behavioural and ERP evidence. Dyslexia, 11(4), 292–310. doi:10.1002/dys.309
Nahum, M., Daikhin, L., Lubin, Y., Cohen, Y., & Ahissar, M. (2010). From Comparison to Classification: A Cortical Tool for Boosting Perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(3), 1128–1136. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1781-09.2010
Neuhaus, G., Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., & Carlson, C. D. (2001). Measures of Information Processing in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Their Relation to Reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 78(4), 359–373. doi:10.1006/jecp.2000.2576
Pelucchi, B., Hay, J.F., Saffran, J.R. (2009). Learning in reverse: Eight-month-old infants track backwards transitional probabilities. Cognition, 113, 244-247.
Perruchet, P., & Pacton, S. (2006). Implicit learning and statistical learning: One phenomenon, two approaches. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(5), 233-238.
Saffran, J. R. (2003). Statistical language learning: Mechanisms and constraints. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 110-114.
Saffran, J.R., Aslin, R.N., & Newport, E.L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-olds. Science, 274, 1926–1928.
Saffran, J. R., Johnson, E. K., Aslin, R. N., & Newport, E. L. (1999). Statistical learning of tone sequences by human infants and adults. Cognition, 70(1), 27–52.
Saffran, J. R., Newport, E. L., & Aslin, R. N. (1996). Word segmentation: The role of distributional cues. Journal of Memory and Language, 35(4), 606–621.
Siok, W. T., & Fletcher, P. (2001). The role of phonological awareness and visual-orthographic skills in Chinese reading acquisition. Developmental Psychology, 37(6), 1–155.
Tallal, P. (1980). Language and reading: Some perceptual prerequisites. Annals of Dyslexia, 30(1), 170–178.
Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27(5), 276–86– discussion 287–91.
Turk-Browne, N. B., Jungé, J. A., & Scholl, B. J. (2005). The Automaticity of Visual Statistical Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(4), 552–564. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.134.4.552
Tzeng, Y.-L., & Lee, C.-Y. (2012). The developmental trajectories of orthography-to-phonology mapping consistency in learning to read Chinese. Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly, 20(4).
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 1–21.
Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30, 73-87.
Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Hecht, S. A., Barker, T. A., Burgess, S. R., et al. (1997). Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: a 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 468.
Wang, C. C., Hung, L. Y., Chang, Y. W., & Chen, H. F. (2010). 一到九年級學生國字識字量發展 Number of Characters School Students Know from Grade 1 to 9. 教育心理學報.
Wechsler, D. (2008a). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition.
San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
Witton, C., Talcott, J. B., Hansen, P.C., Richardson, A. J., Griffiths, T. D., Rees, A., et al. (1998). Sensitivity to dynamic auditory and visual stimuli predicts nonword reading ability in both dyslexic and normal readers. Current Biology, 8(14), 791–797.
Wolf, M. (1991). Naming speed and reading: The contribution of the cognitive neurosciences. Reading Research Quarterly, 123–141.
Wolf, M., Bally, H., & Morris, R. (1986). Automaticity, retrieval processes, and reading: A longitudinal study in average and impaired readers. Child Development, 988–1000.
李佳穎,曾郁琳,林宛萱(2010)。以事件誘發電位探討閱讀障礙學童與一般學童對構字規則之掌握。2010年台灣學障學會年會暨學術研討會論文。台中:台灣。
李俊仁(2009)。閱讀研究議題二:從識字及詞彙量建立文本可讀性分析指標。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究成果報告(編號:100-2420-H-003-002-MY2),未出版。
曾世杰(2004)。聲韻覺識、唸名速度與中文閱讀障礙。台北:心理出版社。
俞筱鈞(1993)。瑞文氏圖形推理測驗系列。 台北:中國行為科學社。
指導教授 吳嫻(Denise Hsien Wu) 審核日期 2013-3-27
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明