博碩士論文 993204060 詳細資訊




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姓名 薛喻仁(Yu-Ren Syue)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學工程與材料工程學系
論文名稱 仿健康與異位性皮膚炎角質層的相轉移材料是否與身體熱傳導和熱保護有關?
(Are Biomimetic Lipid Lamellae of Healthy and Atopic Eczema Stratum Corneum Phase Change Materials for Body Heat Conductivity and Thermal Protection?)
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摘要(中) 皮膚為哺乳類動物最外層的器官,角質層位於皮膚的最外層,幾乎沒有人有做過關於角質層熱性質的研究,我們使用棕櫚酸、膽固醇,和神經胺酸模仿健康皮膚的角質層比例(重量百分比:棕櫚酸/膽固醇/神經胺酸=1/1/2),經由熔融法來製備油脂混合物,利用低溫熱分析儀來找出最穩定且有重複性的循環,以此循環作為基礎進而以小角度X光繞射儀和粉末X光繞射儀解析油脂混合物的結構和高溫載台光學顯微鏡來觀察油脂混合物的相變化。
在本研究中,使用了異位性皮膚炎的仿生角質層油脂比例(重量百分比:棕櫚酸/膽固醇/神經胺酸=1/1/1.13)與正常皮膚的角質層作為比較,由小角度X光繞射儀發現他們的層狀結構分別為9.3和9.5奈米,而且結構上有些不同,使用粉末X光繞射儀可以分析出仿正常角質層的油脂混合物為六方最密結構,而仿正常角質層的油脂混合物為正交晶系結構,進一步使用參比溫度歷史法來計算出異位性皮膚炎和正常皮膚角質層的熱性質,從熱性質的數據來解讀皮膚在人體表層所扮演的腳色,無論是比熱、熱傳系數,和潛熱的數值都不高,所以角質層在人體表層的功能主要為保護作用(抗紫外線、有毒化學藥品侵害)而非作為恆溫的機制。由於角質層所佔面積很大,而且落毛髮是為了可以接觸去避免危險及從觸覺中學習。角質層熔點高達66攝氏度是防止在高溫地區(例如:非洲氣溫可達50度)熔化。
由於固態下比熱的差異性(異位性皮膚炎的比熱大於正常皮膚角質層的比熱),可以明顯的判讀出異位性皮膚炎對冷天氣時較為敏感且易發病的原因之一。
摘要(英) Skin is the outermost and the largest organ of the mammals, and stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost tissue of the skin. There is not much research in the thermal properties of the SC. We use palmitic acid, cholesterol, and ceramide type IV (mass ratio of PA/CHOL/CER4(EOH)=1/1/2) to mimic the healthy SC lipid lamellae. The molten method is used to prepare the lipid mixtures. Use low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LTDSC) is used to analyze the equilibrium state of the lipid mixtures. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) diffraction and hot stage optical microscopy (HSOM) are employed to study the phase transformation and nanostructures of the SC lipid blends.
In this study, the morphology and thermal property differences between the lipid mixtures of the healthy SC and atopic dermatitis (AD, mass ratio of PA/CHOL/CER4(EOH)=1/1/1.13) are compared. Not only the lamellar structures are 9.5 nm and 9.3 nm, respectively, but also some structures change are observed in SAXS diffraction patterns. The packing of the healthy SC and AD lipid mixtures are hexagonal and orthorhombic phases, respectively. Thermal properties such as specific heat, conductivity and heat of fusion of the health SC and AD lipid mixtures are determined by temperature-history method. Apparently, the role of SC is not for thermal regulation, because of the relatively values of specific heat (3.23±0.14 kJ kg-1K-1), heat conductivity (0.226±0.087 Wm-1K-1), and latent heat (kJ kg-1). The large area of the SC and hairless skin surface mainly are for the sense of touch. The melting point of 66oC prevents SC of early human from melting in Africa of 50oC.
The specific heat of AD lipid mixtures is larger than the healthy SC lipid mixtures, and it is one of the reasons of the sensitivity and exacerbation of the AD patients in cold weather.
關鍵字(中) ★ 小角度X光散射儀
★ 相轉移材料
★ 角質層
關鍵字(英) ★ SAXS
★ phase change material
★ stratum corneum
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of contents v
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xvi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Structure of the Stratum Corneum in Human Skin 1
1.2 Atopic Dermatitis, One of the skin Diseases 3
1.3 Phase Change Bio-Material of the lipid mixtures 4
1.4 References 6
Chapter 2 Analytical Instruments 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Microscopic Methods 14
2.2.1 Hot Stage & Optical Microscopy (HSOM) 14
2.3 Thermal Analysis Methods 16
2.3.1 Low Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (LTDSC) 16
2.3.2 Thermometer 18
2.4 Crystallographic Analysis Methods 21
2.4.1 Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) 21
2.4.2 Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) 23
2.6 References 25
Chapter 3 Solubility, Crystal Habit, Crystallinity, and Polymorphism of Palmitic Acid by Initial Solvent Screening 28
3.1 Introduction 28
3.1.1 Solubility 29
3.1.2 Crystal Habit 30
3.1.3 Polymorphism 31
3.1.4 Crystallinity 31
3.2 Materials 32
3.2.1 Material 34
3.2.2 Solvents 36
3.3 Experiment Section 40
3.3.1 Initial solvent screening 40
3.3.2 Analytical measurements 41
3.4 Results and Discussion 43
3.4.1 Solubility 43
3.4.2 Crystal habits 50
3.4.3 Crystallinity 52
3.5 Conclusions 54
3.6 References 55
Chapter 4 Structure of the Lipids Mixture as Stratum Corneum 60
4.1 Introduction 60
4.2 Materials 64
4.3 Experimental Methods 66
4.3.1 Experimental Procedures for Low Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (LTDSC) and Hot Stage & Optical Microscope (HSOM) 67
4.3.2 Experimental Procedures for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) 67
4.3.3 Experimental Procedures for Thermocouple 68
4.3.4 Analytical Instrumentations 69
4.4 Results and Discussion 76
4.4.1 Analysis of Lipid Mixtures as healthy SC 77
4.4.2 Analysis of Lipid Mixtures as AD 83
4.4.3 Thermal Properties of the Lipid Mixtures as healthy SC and AD 89
4.5 Conclusions 94
4.6 References 97
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Future Work 104
5.1 Initial Solvent Screening 104
5.2 The Structure and the Thermal Conductivity of Lipid Mixtures of Healthy Stratum Corneum and Atopic Dermatitis 104
5.3 Thermal Properties from Temperature-history method 105
5.4 Future Work 105
Appendix The SAXS diffraction patterns of palmitic acid, cholesterol, and ceramide 106
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指導教授 李度(Tu Lee) 審核日期 2012-7-17
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