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姓名 鄭博元(Po-yuan Cheng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 材料科學與工程研究所
論文名稱 高反射低電阻銀鑭合金P型氮化鎵歐姆接觸之研究
(High reflectance and low resistance AgLa alloy ohmic contacts on p-GaN)
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摘要(中) 近年來,由於發光二極體LED(Light Emitting Diode)的蓬勃發展,因此具有高亮度的 GaN based 發光二極體受到各界重視。目前覆晶式(flip -chip)和垂直式(thin-GaN)兩種LED結構被提出來製作超高亮度LED。一個具有高反射性與低接觸電阻之P型GaN金屬接觸層是重要的關鍵。銀在可見光範圍中有最高的反射性以及經由退火後可以與p型氮化鎵形成良好的歐姆接觸,然而在熱退火處理過程中,銀薄膜會發生聚集的現象,而使得接觸電阻增加和反射性降低。
在本研究中,我們利用 AgLa 合金材料製作電極,此種接觸結構在300 ℃快速熱退火後,會具有比銀接觸結構具有更低的特徵接觸電阻以及更高的反射率,分別為5.874×10-5 Ω cm2和93%。它能具備如此優良的表現是因為鑭在銀裡之溶解度非常低,且在空氣氣氛下退火時,在晶界上可能有析出物產生,而析出物的出現減緩了銀的聚集以及遷移現象。此外為了解其在高功率發光二極體元件晶圓鍵合時之穩定度,藉由長時間熱處理來測定銀鑭合金結構之熱穩定性,實驗結果顯示此結構在長時間熱處理後,仍然具有良好的電性質,因此銀鑭合金結構對於當作p型氮化鎵的反射性歐姆接觸是非常合適的選擇。
摘要(英) Due to Light-emitting diode has great progress in recent years, high power GaN-based Light-emitting diode has been emphasized. But conventional LED could not satisfy this demand, two types of LED device structure, which are vertical structure LED and flip-chip structure LED, have been proposed to fabricate high power LED. Because p-type GaN has high resistivity, it is critical to search for a metal which has high reflectance and good ohmic contact to reduce its contact resistivity. silver has the highest reflectivity in visible spectrum and forms a good contact to p-GaN by annealing. But Ag film would agglomerate rapidly when it was rapid-thermal-annealed for obtaining low contact resistance or bonded with another substrate. The phenomena described above resulted in the increase of low contact resistance and the decrease of light reflectance. Therefore, it is important to avoid the agglomeration of silver thin film.
In this study, we fabricate a alloy structure p-GaN / AgLa . After rapid-thermal-annealing at 300 ℃, this structure exhibited the lower specific contact resistivity of 5.874×10-5 Ω cm2 and higher reflectivity of 93% than single Ag contact. The reason why it has better performance is that solubility of lanthanum in silver is considerablely low and may form precipitate in grain boundary. The presence of precipitate in grain boundary suppress Ag film from the phenomenon of agglomeration and migration when it was annealed in air ambience. Besides, we tested the thermal stability of AgLa alloy structure for investigating the stability of this structure during the wafer bonding process of two LEDs. Experimental results showed that it still had the good property after long-time heat treatment. Therefore, AgLa (180 nm) alloy structure is a excellent candidate for the reflective ohmic contact of p-GaN.
關鍵字(中) ★ 發光二極體
★ 氮化鎵
★ 歐姆接觸
關鍵字(英) ★ GaN
★ ohmic contact
★ light emitting diode
論文目次 目錄
摘要 i
致謝 iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xi
第一章 序論 1
1.1 GaN之發展 1
1.2 GaN之特性與應用 2
1.3 研究動機 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 金屬半導體接觸理論 5
2.1.1 整流接觸(Rectified contact) 6
2.1.2 非整流接觸(Non-rectified contact) 8
2.2 金屬半導體接面的電流傳導機制 10
2.2.1 熱離子放射(Thermionic emission) 10
2.2.2 熱離子場放射(Thermionic field emission) 10
2.2.3 場放射(Field emission) 11
2.3傳輸線模型原理 13
2.4 P型氮化鎵歐姆接觸之發展 20
2.4.1 提高p型氮化鎵之電洞濃度 21
2.4.2 藉由表面處理減少表面蕭特基能障 21
2.4.3 使用適當之材料製作合金化的歐姆接觸層 22
2.5 高功率氮化鎵基的LED與其高反射且低電阻的P型氮化鎵歐姆接觸層之發展 23
2.5.1 高功率垂直結構LED (High power vertical structure LED)簡介 26
2.5.2 高功率覆晶結構LED (High power flip-chip structure LED)簡介 29
2.5.3 高反射且低接觸電阻p型氮化鎵歐姆接觸層(Highly reflective and low resistance ohmic contact to p-GaN) 30
第三章 研究方法與步驟 33
3.1 特徵接觸電阻量測與測試結構製備 33
3.1.1 p型氮化鎵晶片結構 33
3.1.2 特徵接觸電阻量測結構製作 33
3.1.3 高溫快速熱退火處理以及特徵接觸電阻計算 36
3.2 反射性量測與其測試樣品之製作 38
3.2.1反射性測試樣品之製備 38
3.2.2 高溫快速熱退火處理以及反射率量測 38
3.3 X光光電子能譜之縱深分析 39
3.3.1 測試樣品之製備 39
3.3.2 分析條件和方法 40
第四章 結果與討論 41
4.1 快速熱退火處理對接觸結構表面形態之影響 41
4.2 快速熱退火溫度與特徵接觸電阻表現之關係 48
4.2.1 快速熱退火溫度對特徵接觸電阻的影響 48
4.2.2 快速熱退火處理溫度對反射性的影響 50
4.2.3 接觸結構熱穩定性測試 51
4.3 接觸結構之XPS縱深分析 53
第五章 結論 57
參考文獻 58
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指導教授 陳一塵(I-chen Chen) 審核日期 2012-7-27
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