博碩士論文 993209602 詳細資訊




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姓名 李大衛(David Legrand)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 材料科學與工程研究所
論文名稱
(On fabrication of Al,Sn co-doped ZnO thin film by sol-gel technique and their properties)
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摘要(中) 本研究為探討利用溶膠凝膠法,藉由鋁及錫在氧化鋅的共摻雜,製作出新穎的透
明導電薄膜。
薄膜的微結構、組成、光電及化學性質在本研究中將被深入討論。
溶膠凝膠法被認為是製備薄膜並頗受注目的技術之一,因此學生可從中了解以浸
鍍(dip‐coating)法配置前驅物溶液及一連續的步驟製備出所需的薄膜。
此外,也可學習X‐Ray 繞射、掃描式電子顯微鏡等儀器進一步探討薄膜的晶體結
構以及表面形貌。
摘要(英) The goal of this Master Research would be concentrated on the fabrication of a new transparent conductive
thin films of zinc oxide co-doped with Al and Sn by sol-gel method. The micro-structure,
composition, optical, electrical properties and chemical properties of these films will be investigated.
The sol-gel method is one of the most popular techniques to prepare thin solid films so that the student
may learn the skill how he could prepare the thin films from the precursor solutions through a sequence
of procedures such as dip-coating and heat treatment on a glass substrate. In addition, he will conduct
the instrumental analysis such x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy to examine the crystal
structure and surface morphology. Finally, he will learn how to characterize the films.
關鍵字(中) ★ 溶膠凝膠法
★ 氧化鋅
★ 鋁錫共摻雜
關鍵字(英) ★ sol-gel method
★ Al–Sn co-doped ZnO
論文目次 Contents
Abstract i
Acknowledgements ii
Nomenclature iv
Contents vi
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Introduction 1
1 Theoretical background 2
1.1 Properties of ZnO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Crystal structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Electronic structure of Zinc Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.3 Conductivity in zinc oxide by theoretical computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.4 Resistivity treated by the hall effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.1.5 Elementary excitations in the Zinc Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2 Fabrication methods of ZnO thin films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.1 Sol-gel process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.2 Dip coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3 Motivation and goals of this study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2 Literature review 18
2.1 On the doping of zinc oxide, II-VI semi-conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1.1 Group I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.2 Group III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.3 Group IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.4 Group V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.5 Group VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2 On the fabrication of doped (Al,Sn) ZnO thin films by sol gel technique . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.1 Fabrication of the colloidal solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.2 Deposition of thin films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3 On the fabrication of co-doped ZnO thin films by sol gel technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.4 Advantages taken by Aluminium and Tin as dopants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3 Experimental procedure, results and discussion 32
3.1 Flowchart of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.2 Drying and annealing process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3 Fabrication of samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.4 Morphology and micro-structure of the thin films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.1 Samples doped Tin (TZO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.2 Samples doped Aluminium (AZO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.3 Samples co-doped Tin-Aluminium SAZO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5 Optical properties of the thin film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.5.1 Samples doped Aluminium (AZO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.5.2 Samples doped Tin (TZO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.5.3 Samples co-doped Tin-Aluminium SAZO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.6 Electrical properties of the thin film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.6.1 Samples doped Aluminium (AZO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.6.2 Samples co-doped Tin-Aluminium SAZO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Conclusion 53
Appendix 54
A Review of the Drude model and the Hall effect for semi-conductor doped with electrons
and holes 54
B Review of the classical treatment of the lattice vibration for one and two atoms 57
C Summary formatted tabular of the literature survey 61
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
D More SEM cross-section of co-doped sample 70
參考文獻 [1] Yasemin Caglar, Müjdat Caglar, and Saliha Ilican. Microstructural, optical and electrical studies
on sol gel derived ZnO and ZnO:Al films. Current Applied Physics, 12:963–968, 29 December 2011.
[2] Saliha Ilican, Mujdat Caglar, and Yasemin Caglar. Sn doping effects on the electro-optical properties
of sol gel derived transparent ZnO films. Applied Surface Science, 256:7204–7210, 21 May 2010.
[3] R. Jothilakshmi, V. Ramakrishnan, R. Thangavel, J. Kumar, Andrei Sarua, and Martin Kuball.
Micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy study of Li-doped and undoped ZnO needle crystals. J.
Raman Spectrosc, 40:556–561, 2009.
[4] Claus F. Klingshirn, Andreas Waag, Axel Hoffmann, and Jean Geurts. Zinc Oxide: From Fundamental
Properties Towards Novel Applications. Springer, 2010.
[5] Jin-Hong Lee and Byung-Ok Park. Transparent conducting ZnO:Al, In and Sn thin films deposited
by the sol–gel method. Thin Solid Films, 426:94–99, 2003.
[6] Paul F. McMillan and Richard L. Remmele. . American Mineralogist, 71:772–778, 1986.
[7] Chien-Yie Tsay, Hua-Chi Cheng, Yen-Ting Tung, Wei-Hsing Tuan, and Chung-Kwei Lin. Effect of
Sn-doped on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method.
Thin Solid Films, 517:1032–1036, 15 June 2008.
[8] M. Vishwas, K. Narasimha Rao, A.R. Phani, K.V. Arjuna Gowda, and R.P.S. Chakradhar. Optical,
electrical and structural characterization of ZnO:Al thin films prepared by a low cost sol–gel method.
Solid State Communications, 152:324–327, 9 November 2011.
[9] Mingsong Wang, Weiqiang Liang, Yunfeng Yang, Juan Yang, Xiaonong Cheng, Sung Hong Hahn,
and Eui Jung Kim. Sol-gel derived transparent conducting ZnO:Al thin films: Effect of crystallite
orientation on conductivity and self-assembled network texture. Materials Chemistry and Physics,
xxx:xx–xx, 2012.
[10] Lamia Znaidi. Sol–gel-deposited ZnO thin films: A review. Materials Science and Engineering B,
174:18–30, 2010.
指導教授 林景崎
(Jing-Chie Lin、Gilles Lerondel)
審核日期 2013-1-31
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