博碩士論文 994204018 詳細資訊




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姓名 張民萱(Min-hsuan Chang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 頻譜資源分配之政策─以開放模式為目標
(Reconsidering Spectrum Policy: A Practical Approach Toward Spectrum Commons)
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摘要(中) 頻譜資源之重要性向來無可否認,尤其在仰賴通訊傳播產業服務的今日,享有以利用頻譜提供的服務內容,幾乎成了現代公民之「基本權」。長久以來,頻譜資源的利用效率與技術發展,一直是經濟學家、法律學者與通訊科技專家的焦點所在,因而產生許多關於頻譜分配政策議題之論戰,在透過實務操作下,可將各方論點分為三類,即以授權釋出頻譜之命令與控制模式、建立頻譜財產權之拍賣模式,與強調頻譜資源的共享及共用之開放模式。
縱然各家學說看似百花齊放,政府也試圖找尋更好的頻譜分配方針,但至今頻譜資源仍然受到不適當的政策禁錮,而無法達成社會福利最大化。過去學界對頻譜資源分配之探討,多以頻譜拍賣制為主軸發展其主張,為反應近來科技之演進與市場條件的變動,本文將以開放模式為目標,試圖建立起拍賣模式與開放模式之間的橋樑。除了參考英美兩國之政策與未來趨勢,也自不同角度探討,實施頻譜拍賣制的疑義;並認為應在時空條件許可下,積極地實現「頻譜近用權」,以保障人民之言論自由;尤其,開放模式的實施,不僅有機會自結構上動搖媒體所有權集中之程度,亦能預防無線網路重蹈有線網路最後一哩問題之覆轍;最後,更提出頻譜政策應納入著作權法中「合理使用」和「公共領域」的概念,作為平衡私人利益與公共利益之手段。
摘要(英) The utilization of spectrum is always a big issue for us. Most people rely on the services supplied from spectrum today. The economists, legal scholars and technical experts have focused on how to use spectrum well and efficiency for a long time and resulting in many controversies over the allocation and assignment of spectrum. The different arguments could be divided into three models: The Command and Control Model, The Spectrum Auction Model and The Spectrum Commons Model.
There has been an enormous amount of literature on spectrum allocation analysis and the government is also trying to make a better policy of spectrum. However, the spectrum resource hasn’t been managed well due to some inappropriate policies. With regard to spectrum allocation, previous studies are focused on spectrum auctions. The main aim of this research is to “spectrum commons” as the target, and builds the connection between the spectrum auction model and the spectrum commons model. Referring to the policies and trends in USA and UK, this thesis will also investigate the issues of performing spectrum auctions. Particularly, the commons model can not only protect the freedom of speech, but also reduce the concentration of media ownership. Besides, it would limit the ability of any telecommunication company from establishing bottleneck control over the last mile wireless access infrastructure. With a better use of spectrum, we should take the concept of “fair use” and “public domain” in copyright field into consideration because it can balance the private interest and public interest of spectrum allocation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 頻譜
★ 頻譜分配
★ 頻譜指配
★ 命令與控制模式
★ 拍賣制
★ 共用模式
★ 公有地悲劇
★ 頻譜近用權
★ 合理使用
關鍵字(英) ★ spectrum
★ spectrum allocation
★ spectrum assignment
★ The Command and Control Model
★ The Spectrum Auction Model
★ The Spectrum Commons Model
★ tragedy of the commons
★ access to spectrum
★ Fair Use
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 ix
1. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究動機與問題意識 1
1.2. 研究方法及限制 3
1.2.1. 文獻分析法 3
1.2.2. 經濟分析 3
1.2.3. 比較法學 3
1.2.4. 研究限制 4
1.3. 研究架構 4
2. 頻譜配用之理論基礎 5
2.1. 命令與控制模式之審議制 5
2.1.1. 命令與控制模式之產生背景 5
2.1.2. 舊有制度造成之弊端 7
2.1.3. 評審制 vs. 拍賣制 9
2.2. 以財產權為基礎之拍賣制 10
2.2.1. 降低交易成本 11
2.2.2. 物理稀有性的謬誤 13
2.2.3. 以偽善之「公共利益」箝制言論自由 14
2.2.4. 反思─拍賣制背後的操縱者 16
2.3. 因應科技發展之共用模式 18
2.3.1. 頻譜共用與共享 18
2.3.2. 科技之演進對現行管制模式帶來的衝擊 21
2.3.2.1. 無執照使用頻段為頻譜管理方向產生的靈感 21
2.3.2.2. 新穎頻譜利用技術之發展 23
2.3.2.2.1. 感知無線電 23
2.3.2.2.2. 展頻 25
2.3.2.2.3. 從類比至數位 26
3. 國外之頻譜政策與未來趨勢 28
3.1. 英國 28
3.2. 美國 33
4. 從拍賣制走向混合模式 39
4.1. 現行我國拍賣制的僵化 39
4.2. 擴張頻譜共用與共享的必要性 41
4.2.1. 頻譜資源特性在經濟學上之定位 41
4.2.2. 檢視實施財產權制度之重要疑義 45
4.2.3. 頻譜拍賣制度於經濟面上之弊端 52
4.2.3.1. 贏家的詛咒 52
4.2.3.2. 勾結行為 55
4.2.3.3. 市場失靈以財產權矯正之觀點 56
4.2.4. 頻譜拍賣制度於創新上之無效率 59
4.2.4.1. 歷史經驗:新產業的停滯 59
4.2.4.2. 大公司的創新 60
4.2.4.3. 具體內容:3G vs. Wi-Fi ─ 無線近用的「最後一哩」 64
4.2.5. 頻譜共享與共用於法律上之正當性 67
4.2.5.1. 言論自由與頻譜近用權 67
4.2.5.2. 藉頻譜共享動搖通訊傳播媒體所有權集中之結構 73
4.2.5.3. 引入合理使用與公共領域構建未來的頻譜政策 76
4.2.5.4. 以法律政策突破囚犯困境 80
5. 混合模式面對之挑戰與其配套措施 85
5.1. 混合模式於技術面上產生之風險 85
5.1.1. 技術上之侷限而導致干擾問題 85
5.1.2. 基地台增建的可能性引發民眾之疑慮 86
5.2. 共用模式下公有地悲劇發生的可能性 88
5.3. 共享模式下對利用人是否構成合理使用之判斷爭議 91
5.4. 落實頻譜混合制之配套措施─從我國行動寬頻 (4G) 釋照談起 95
6. 結論 104
6.1. 重點回顧 104
6.2. 政策建議 108
參考文獻 110
一、中文文獻(依作者姓氏筆劃排序) 110
(一) 專書 110
(二) 期刊與專書論文 110
(三) 研究報告 112
(四) 學位論文 112
(五) 網路資源 112
二、外文文獻 113
(一) Books 113
(二) Journal Articles and Book Chapters 114
(三) Cases 118
(四) Reports 119
(五) Web Resources 120
參考文獻 一、中文文獻(依作者姓氏筆劃排序)
(一) 專書
1. Len Fisher著,林俊宏譯,《剪刀、石頭、布:生活中的賽局理論》(ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS : GAME THEORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE),第一版,天下文化出版,2009年。
2. Nicholas Negroponte著,齊若蘭譯,《數位革命: 011011100101110111...的奧妙》 (BEING DIGITAL),第一版,天下文化出版,1995年。
3. Richard A. Epstein著,簡資修譯,《自由社會之原則》(PRINCIPLES FOR A FREE SOCIETY),初版,商周出版,2003年。
4. Richard A. Posner著,蔣兆康譯,楊智傑校訂,《法律經濟學》(ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW),初版,五南出版,2010年8 月。
5. 吳庚,《行政法之理論與實用》,增訂九版,自版,2005年。
6. 林子儀,《言論自由與新聞自由》,初版,月旦出版,1993年。
7. 林合民等五人合著,《行政法入門》,第二版,元照出版,2009年。
8. 張清溪等四人合著,《經濟學:理論與實際》,上冊,第六版,翰蘆圖書出版,2010年。
9. 熊秉元,《法律經濟學開講》,初版,時報文化出版,2007年。
(二) 期刊與專書論文
1. 江耀國,〈英國2003年通訊傳播法之研究─兼論我國通訊傳播匯流立法〉,《東吳法律學報》,第二十卷第三期,2009年1月。
2. 李念祖,〈廣播電視法修正立法關於接近使用媒體權論─淺評司法院大法官釋字第364號解釋〉,《法令月刊》,第46卷第2期,1995年。
3. 林俊宏,〈由無線電核照收費及其使用權利範圍探討頻譜資源管理法之建立〉,《中原財經法學》,第二十四期,2010年。
4. 林俊宏,〈無線電頻譜市場管制模式之探討─以頻譜財產權制度為核心〉,《第15屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集》,2008年12月。
5. 林俊宏,〈英國電信自由化與無線電頻譜法制變遷之探討〉,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,2008年5月。
6. 周韻采,〈頻譜核釋與制度:財產權與公信力的實證研究〉,《政治科學論叢》,第十九期,2003年12月。
7. 馬席彬、林榕茂,〈應用於感知無線電技術之頻譜偵測方法〉,《網路通訊國家型科技計畫簡訊》,第18期,2010年8月。
8. 胡志男,〈頻譜共享技術與相關法規議題初探〉,《網路通訊國家型科技計畫簡訊》,第3期,2009年5月。
9. 胡婉玲,〈消費者轉換成本類型對轉換意圖關係之研究─台灣行動電話服務業為例〉,《廣告學研究》,第二十五集,2006年1月。
10. 許宗力,〈談言論自由的幾個問題〉,收錄於同氏著,《法與國家權力(二)》,初版,元照,2006年。
11. 許育典,〈多元文化國下通訊傳播自由的建構〉,《東吳法律學報》,第二十卷第一期,2008年7月。
12. 彭心儀,〈論「頻譜稀有資源」的管制原則〉,《台北大學法學論叢》,第七十五期,2010年。
13. 彭心儀,〈論無線通訊基地台之資訊公開(下)─兼評英國行政法院Sitefinder案判決〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,第181期,2010年6月。
14. 彭心儀、吳俊幟,〈天空中的土地?─頻譜交易之法律問題初探〉,《台灣本土法學雜誌》,第101期,2007年。
15. 楊人順、鄭靜紋,〈機器對機器通訊的現況與未來〉,《網路通訊國家型科技計畫簡訊》,第35期,2012年1月。
16. 劉靜怡,〈媒體所有權、觀點多元化與言論自由保障:美國法制的觀察〉,《臺大法學論叢》,第40卷第3期,2011年。
17. 劉孔中,〈頻譜資源之管理〉,收錄於同氏著,《通訊傳播法:數位匯流、管制治理與法治國家》,第一版,臺灣本土法學雜誌出版,2010年8月。
18. 蔡惠如,〈我國著作權法合理使用之挑戰與契機─以著作權法第65條第2項之判斷基準為核心〉,收錄於黃銘傑主編,《著作權合理使用規範之現在與未來》,初版,元照出版,2011年。
19. 簡資修,〈科斯經濟學的法學意義〉,《中外法學》,第24卷第一期,2012年。
20. 簡資修,〈物權外部性問題〉,《中研院法學期刊》,第8期,2011年。
21. 簡資修,〈物權法:共享與排他之調和〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,第97期,2003年6月。
22. 簡維克、陳承先,〈以英美頻譜改革政策為例初探下一代頻譜管理方式〉,收錄於劉尚志主編,《2005年全國科技法律研討會論文集》,國立交通大學出版,2005年。
23. 闕光威,〈對著作權保護範圍擴張之因應─合理使用實務與理論基礎之研究〉,《政大智慧財產評論》,第五卷第二期,2007年。
24. 〈NCC推基地台共構〉,《台灣新經濟簡訊》,第109期,2010年。
(三) 研究報告
1. 吳兆琰,〈700MHz頻譜應用及監理政策之應用〉,國家通訊傳播委員會委託財團法人資訊工業策進會研究,2009年12月。
2. 李學智、楊成發,〈數位無線地面電視單頻網建置技術之分析與研究期末報告〉,交通部電信總局委託報告,2004年10月。
3. 彭心儀、王郁琦、周韻采,〈規劃頻率拍賣與回收制度之研究〉,國家通訊傳播委員會95年委託研究報告,2006年。
(四) 學位論文
1. 楊曜隆,〈無線網路技術應用於802.11n效能評估與分析〉,國立中央大學資訊工程研究所碩士論文,2008年6月。
(五) 網路資源
1. 中華電信2012年第三季營運報告,取自http://www.cht.com.tw/ir/upload/content/3Q2012PresentationChinese.pdf。
2. 自由時報電子版,NCC:無線電視釋照2張 1商業台1公益台,2012年2月9日,取自http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2012/new/feb/9/today-life1.htm。
3. 林高洲,感知無線電之運用與發展,中華民國電子零件認證委員會,取自http://www.cteccb.org.tw/pdf/IECQ-52-5.pdf。
4. 林杰龍,現代通訊基頻技術概論,中華民國電子零件認證委員會,取自http://www.cteccb.org.tw/pdf/IECQ-48-7.pdf。
5. 林淑惠,4G頻譜拍賣底價 一次付清,工商時報電子版,2013年4月8日,取自http://news.chinatimes.com/tech/171706/122013040800284.html。
6. 國家通訊傳播委員會網站:http://freqdbo.ncc.gov.tw/Portal/NCCB01D_.aspx。
7. 許正德,高傳輸低耗電UWB(上)解說技術基本原理與特性,新通訊元件雜誌,第55期,2005年9月,取自http://www.2cm.com.tw/technologyshow_content.asp?sn=0701010563。
8. 費家琪,電信三雄 爭取2G執照延期,經濟日報,2009年5月11日,取自http://mag.udn.com/mag/digital/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=193826。
9. 劉力仁,NCC推4G 業者後年開始2G換照,自由電子報,2012年11月1日,取自http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2012/new/nov/1/today-life13.htm。
10. 樊沁萍,台灣WiMAX執照拍賣及其科技政策背景分析,詳見http://www.econ.ntu.edu.tw/sem-paper/100/micro_1001117.pdf。
11. 葉代芝,WiMAX爛攤子沒收 空喊4G上路,商業周刊第1296期,2012年9月24日,取自http://www.businessweekly.com.tw/webarticle.php?id=47915&p=1。
12. 陳慧玲,Small Cell,DigiTimes電子時報,2012年3月13日,取自 http://www.digitimes.com.tw/tw/dt/n/shwnws.asp?CnlID=10&id=0000275379_0OQ4E50U6WAY7MLYTCBW2。
13. 鐘惠玲,WiFi認證擴大 安卓、iPad 40萬用戶受惠,中時電子報,2013年4月23日,取自http://life.chinatimes.com/LifeContent/1409/20130423000510.html。
二、外文文獻
(一) Books
1. AXELROD, ROBERT, THE EVOLUTION OF COOPERATION (Basic Books 1984).
2. BOYLE, JAMES, THE PUBLIC DOMAIN: ENCLOSING THE COMMONS OF THE MIND (Yale Univ. Press 2008).
3. BAKER, C. EDWIN, MEDIA CONCENTRATION AND DEMOCRACY: WHY OWNERSHIP MATTERS (Cambridge Univ. Press 2007).
4. BENKLER, YOCHAI, THE WEALTH OF NETWORKS - HOW SOCIAL PRODUCTION TRANSFORMS MARKETS AND FREEDOM (Yale Univ. Press 2006).
5. BENJAMIN, LOUISE M., FREEDOM OF THE AIR AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST: FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS IN BROADCASTING TO 1935 (Southern Illinois Univ. Press 2006).
6. COOTER, ROBERT & THOMAS ULEN, LAW AND ECONOMICS (Addion Wesley Longman 3d ed. 2000).
7. GILDER, GEORGE, TELECOSM: HOW INFINITE BANDWIDTH WILL REVOLUTIONIZE OUR WORLD (Free Press 2002).
8. HELLER, MICHAEL, GRIDLOCK ECONOMY: HOW TOO MUCH OWNERSHIP WRECKS MARKETS, STOPS INNOVATION, AND COSTS LIVES (Basic Books 2008).
9. HUBER, PETER, LAW AND DISORDER IN CYBERSPACE: ABOLISH THE FCC AND LET COMMON LAW RULE THE TELECOSM (Oxford Univ. Press 1997).
10. LESSIG, LAWRENCE, CODE: VERSION 2.0 (Basic Books 2006).
11. LESSIG, LAWRENCE, FREE CULTURE: THE NATURE AND FUTURE OF CREATIVITY (Penguin Books 2004).
12. LESSIG, LAWRENCE, THE FUTURE OF IDEAS: THE FATE OF THE COMMONS IN A CONNECTED WORLD (Random House 2001).
13. LESSIG, LAWRENCE, CODE AND OTHER LAWS OF CYBERSPACE (Basic Books 1999).
14. LLOYD, WILLIAM FORSTER, TWO LECTURES ON THE CHECKS TO POPULATION (Oxford Univ. Press 1833).
15. MATHIS, KLAUS, EFFICIENCY INSTEAD OF JUSTICE? : SEARCHING FOR THE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (Springer 2009).
16. MILLER, JAMES D., GAME THEORY AT WORK: HOW TO USE GAME THEORY TO OUTTHINK AND OUTMANEUVER YOUR COMPETITION (McGraw Hill 2003).
17. MUSGRAVE, RICHARD A., THE THEORY OF PUBLIC FINANCE: A STUDY IN PUBLIC ECONOMY (McGraw-Hill 1959).
18. OSTROM, ELINOR, GOVERNING THE COMMONS: THE EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS FOR COLLECTIVE ACTION (Cambridge Univ. Press 1990).
19. POSNER, RICHARD A., ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (Aspen Publishers 7th ed. 2007) (1972).
20. SHY, OZ, ECONOMICS OF NETWORK INDUSTRY (Cambridge Univ. Press 2001).
(二) Journal Articles and Book Chapters
1. Ausubel, Lawrence M. & Paul Milgrom, The Lovely but Lonely Vickrey Auction, in COMBINATORIAL AUCTIONS (Peter Cramton, Yoav Shoham and Richard Steinberg eds., The MIT Press 2010).
2. Adler, Robert S., Flawed Thinking: Addressing Decision Biases in Negotiation, 20 OHIO ST. J. ON DISP. RESOL. 683 (2005).
3. Aguilar, Michael J., Micro Radio: A Small Step in the Return to Localism, Diversity, and Competitiveness in Broadcasting, 65 BROOK. L. REV. 1133 (1999).
4. Benkler, Yochai, Open Wireless vs. Licensed Spectrum: Evidence from Market Adoption, 26 HARV. J.L. & TECH. 69 (2012).
5. Benkler, Yochai, Through the Looking Glass: Alice and the Constitutional Foundations of The Public Domain, 66-SPG LAW & CONTEMP. PROBS. 173 (2003).
6. Benkler, Yochai, Some Economics of Wireless Communications, 16 HARV. J.L. & TECH. 25 (2002).
7. Benkler, Yochai, Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain, 74 N.Y.U. L. REV. 354 (1999).
8. Benkler, Yochai, Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of The Digitally Networked Environment, 11 HARV. J.L. & TECH. 287 (1998).
9. Brito, Jerry, The Spectrum Commons in Theory and Practice, 2007 STAN. TECH. L. REV. 1 (2007).
10. Balkin, Jack M., Digital Speech and Democratic Culture: A Theory of Freedom of Expression for the Information Society, 79 N.Y.U. L. REV. 1 (2004).
11. Benjamin, Stuart Minor, Spectrum Abundance and The Choice Between Private and Public Control, 78 N.Y.U. L. REV. 2007 (2003).
12. Buck, Stuart, Replacing Spectrum Auctions With a Spectrum Commons, 2002 STAN. TECH. L. REV. 2 (2002).
13. COASE, R.H., The Firm, The Market, and The Law, in THE FIRM, THE MARKET, AND THE LAW (The University of Chicago Press 1990).
14. COASE, R.H., The Problem of Social Cost, in THE FIRM, THE MARKET, AND THE LAW (The University of Chicago Press 1990).
15. Coase, R.H., The Federal Communications Commission, 2 J.L. & ECON. 1 (1959).
16. Cave, Martin, Anti-Competitive Behaviour in Spectrum Markets: Analysis and Response, 34 TELECOMM. POL’Y 251 (2010).
17. Cohen, Wesley M. & Steven Kleeper, A Reprise of Size and R&D, 106 ECON. J. 925 (1996).
18. Calabresi, Guido & A. Douglas Melamed, Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral, 85 HARV. L. REV. 1089 (1972).
19. Denneson, Travis J., The Definitional Imbalance Between Copyright and the First Amendment, 30 WM. MITCHELL L. REV. 895 (2004).

20. Dagan, Hanoch & Michael A. Heller, The Liberal Commons, 110 YALE L.J. 549 (2001).
21. Demsetsz, Harold, Toward a Theory of Property Rights, 57 AM. ECON. REV. 347 (1967).
22. Eisenach, Jeffrey A., Spectrum Reallocation and the National Broadband Plan, 64 FED. COMM. L.J. 87 (2011).
23. Eagle, Steven J., Wireless Telecommunications, Infrastructure Security, and the NIMBY Problem, 54 CATH. U. L. REV. 445 (2005).
24. Easterbrook, Honorable Frank H., When Does Competition Improve Regulation?, 52 EMORY L.J. 1297 (2003).
25. Feld, Harold, From Third Class Citizen to First Among Equals: Rethinking the Place of Unlicensed Spectrum in the FCC Hierarchy, 15 COMMLAW CONSPECTUS 53 (2006).
26. Faulhaber, Gerald R., The Question of Spectrum: Technology, Management, and Regime Change, 4 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 123 (2005).
27. Fennell, Lee Anne, Common Interest Tragedies, 98 NW. U. L. REV. 907 (2004).
28. Fritts, Brain C., Private Property, Economic Efficiency, and Spectrum Policy in the Wake of the C Block Auction, 51 FED. COMM. L.J. 849 (1999).
29. Fowler, Mark S. & Daniel L. Brenner, A Marketplace Approach To Broadcast Regulation, 60 TEX. L. REV. 207 (1982).
30. Gensler, Howard, Property Law as an Optimal Economic Foundation, 35 WASHBURN L.J. 50 (1995).
31. Hazlett, Thomas W., Roberto E. Muñoz, and Diego B. Avanzini, What Really Matters in Spectrum Allocation Design, 10 NW. J. TECH. &INTELL. PROP. 93 (2012).
32. Hazlett, Thomas W. & Evan T. Leo, The Case for Liberal Spectrum Licenses: A Technical and Economic Perspective, 26 BERKELEY TECH. L.J. 1037 (2011).
33. Hazlett, Thomas W. & Matthew L. Spitzer, Advanced Wireless Technologies and Public Policy, 79 S. CAL. L. REV. 595 (2006).
34. Hazlett, Thomas W., The Wireless Craze, The Unlimited Bandwidth Myth, The Spectrum Auction Faux Pas, and the Punchline to Ronald Coase’s “Big Joke”: An Essay on Airwave Allocation Policy, 14 HARV. J.L. & TECH. 335 (2001).
35. Hazlett, Thomas W., Assigning Property Rights to Radio Spectrum Users: Why Did FCC License Auctions Take 67 Years?, 41 J.L. & ECON. 529 (1998).
36. Hazlett, Thomas W., Physical Scarcity, Rent Seeking, And The First Amendment, 97 COLUM. L. REV. 905 (1997).
37. Hoffman, Karla, Spectrum Auctions, in WIRELESS NETWORK DESIGN: OPTIMIZATION MODELS AND SOLUTION PROCEDURES (Jeff Kennington, Eli Olinick and Dinesh Rajan eds., Springer 2011).
38. Heller, Michael A., The Tragedy of the Anticommons: Property in the Transition from Marx to Markets, 111 HARV. L. REV. 621 (1998).
39. Hardin, Garrett, The Tragedy of the Commons, 162 SCI. 1243 (1968), available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/162/3859/1243.full.
40. Kendler, Owen M., Auction Theory can Complement Competition Law: Preventing Collusion in Europe’s 3G Spectrum Allocation, 23 U. PA. J. INT’L ECON. L. 153 (2002).
41. Kummel, William, Spectrum Bids, Bets, and Budgets: Seeking an Optimal Allocation and Assignment Process for Domestic Commercial Electromagnetic Spectrum Products, Services, and Technology, 48 FED. COMM. L.J. 511 (1996).
42. Lessig, Lawrence, Re-crafting a Public Domain, 18 YALE J.L. & HUMAN. 56 (2006).
43. Lessig, Lawrence, The First Amendment and the Media: Convergence--Necessary, Evil, or Both? The Legal, Economic, and Cultural Impacts of Mega Media Mergers, 9 FORDHAM INTELL. PROP. MEDIA & ENT. L.J. 405 (1999).
44. Lipton, Jacqueline D., Solving the Digital Piracy Puzzle: Disaggregating Fair Use From the DMCA’s Anti-Device Provisions, 19 HARV. J.L. & TECH. 111 (2005).
45. Leibovitz, John S., The Great Spectrum Debate: A Commentary on The FCC Spectrum Policy Task Force’s Report on Spectrum Rights and Responsibilities, 6 YALE J. L. & TECH. 390 (2004).
46. Lehr, William & Lee W. McKnight, Wireless Internet access: 3G vs. WiFi?, 27 TELECOMM. POL’Y 351 (2003).
47. McAdams, Richard H., An Attitudinal Theory of Expressive Law, 79 OR. L. REV. 339 (2010).
48. Margie, R. Paul, Can you Hear me now? Getting Better Reception from the FCC’s Spectrum Policy, 2004 STAN. TECH. L. REV. 5 (2004).
49. Marshall, Robert C. & Michael James Meurer, Bidder Collusion and Antitrust Law: Refining the Analysis of Price Fixing to Account for the Special Features of Auction Markets, 72 ANTITRUST L.J. 83 (2004).
50. Martin, Arthur, Which Public, Whose Interest? the FCC, the Public Interest, and Low-Power Radio, 38 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 1159 (2001).
51. Montanye, James A., Rent Seeking Never Stops: An Essay on Telecommunications Policy, 1 INDEP. REV. 249 (1996).
52. Niehoff, Leonard M., Rationing the Infinite, 107 MICH. L. REV. 1019 (2009).
53. Noam, Eli, Spectrum Auctions: Yesterday’s Heresy, Today’s Orthodoxy, Tomorrow’s Anachronism: Taking the Next Step to Open Spectrum Access, 41 J.L. & ECON. 765 (1998).
54. Prat, Andrea & Tommaso Valletti, Spectrum Auctions versus Beauty Contests: Costs and Benefits, 91 RIVISTA DI POLITICA ECONOMICA 59 (2001), avalible at http://istituti.unicatt.it/economia_impresa_lavoro_OECD-draft.pdf.
55. Picker, Randal C., An Introduction to Game Theory and the Law, in CHICAGO LECTURES IN LAW AND ECONOMICS (Eric A. Posner ed., West Publishing Company 2000).
56. Rose, Carol, The Comedy of the Commons: Custom, Commerce, and Inherently Public Property, 53 U. CHI. L. REV. 711 (1986).
57. Soriano, Josephine, The Digital Transition and The First Amendment: Is it Time to Reevaluate Red Lion’s Scarcity Rationale?, 15 B.U. PUB. INT. L.J. 341 (2006).
58. Shapiro, Stephen J., How Internet Non-Regulation Undermines the Rationales Used to Support Broadcast Regulation, 8-FALL MEDIA L. & POL’Y 1 (1999).
59. Spitzer, Matthew L., The Constitutionality of Licensing Broadcasters, 64 N.Y.U. L. REV. 990 (1989).
60. Samuelson, Paul A., The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure, 36 REV. ECON. & STAT 387 (1954).
61. Weiser, Philip J., Communicating During Emergencies: Toward Interoperability and Effective Information Management, 59 FED. COMM. L.J. 547 (2007).
62. Wu, Tim, Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination, 2 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 141 (2003).
63. White, Lawrence J., “Propertyzing” the Electromagnetic Spectrum: Why it’s Important, and How to Begin, 9 FALL MEDIA L. & POL’Y 19 (2000).
(三) Cases
1. Free Speech ex rel. Ruggiero v. Reno, 200 F.3d 63 (Second Circuit. 1999).
2. Feist Pubs., Inc. v. Rural Tel. Svc. Co., Inc., 499 U.S. 340 (1991).
3. Hoover v. Intercity Radio Co., 286 F. 1003 (D.C. Cir. 1923).
4. National Broadcasting Co. v. U.S., 319 U.S. 190 (1943).
5. Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. F.C.C., 395 U.S. 367 (1969)
6. Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984).
7. U.S. v. Dunifer, 219 F.3d 1004 (Ninth Circuit. 2000).
8. United States v. Zenith Radio Corp. et al., 12 F .2d 614 (N.D. Ill. 1926).
(四) Reports
1. FCC, Third Memorandum Opinion and Order, In the Matter of Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands, FCC 12-36, (April 5, 2012), available at http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2012/db0405/FCC-12-36A1.pdf.
2. FCC, Second Memorandum Opinion and Order, In the Matter of Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Band and Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed Devices Below 900 MHz in the 3 GHz Band, FCC 10-174, (September 23, 2010) , available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-10-174A1.pdf.
3. FCC, Second Report and Order and Memorandum Opinion and Order, In the Matter of Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands, FCC 08-260, (November 14, 2008), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-08-260A1.pdf.
4. FCC, Notice Of Proposed Rule Making And Order, In the Matter of Facilitating Opportunities for Flexible, Efficient, and Reliable Spectrum Use Employing Cognitive Radio Technologies, FCC 03-322, (December 30, 2003), available at http://www.cs.ucdavis.edu/~liu/289I/Material/FCC-03-322A1.pdf.
5. FCC, Report and Order, In the matter of Revision of Parts 2 and 15 of the Commission’s Rules to Permit Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices in the 5 GHz band, FCC 03-287, (November 18, 2003), available at http://www.acbcert.com/documents/misc-docs/fcc-03-287a1-UNII-Changes.pdf.
6. FCC, Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, ET Docket No. 02-135, (November 2002), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-228542A1.pdf.
7. Ofcom, Policy evaluation report: AIP, July 2009, available at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/spectrum-research/evaluation_report_AIP.pdf.
8. Ofcom, A Statement on Spectrum Liberalisation, January 2005, available at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/liberalisation2/statement/statement.pdf.
9. Ofcom, Spectrum Framework Review: Implementation Plan, January 2005, available at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/sfrip/summary/sfr-plan.pdf.
10. Ofcom, Spectrum Framework Review: A consultation on Ofcom’s views as to how radio spectrum should be managed, November 2004, available at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/sfr/summary/sfr.pdf.
11. Ofcom, A Statement on Spectrum Trading: Implementation in 2004 and beyond, August 2004, available at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/spec_trad/statement/sts.pdf.
12. Ofcom, Spectrum Trading Consultation, November 2003, available at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/spec_trad/summary/pdf_version.pdf.
(五) Web Resources
Papers:
1. Benkler, Yochai & Lawrence Lessig, Net Gains: Will Technology Make CBS Unconstitutional?, THE NEW REPUBLIC ON LINE, (December 14, 1998), available at http://pactlab-dev.spcomm.uiuc.edu/class/08SP/496/Net%20Gains.pdf.
2. Carter, Kenneth R., Ahmed Lahjouji & Neal McNeil, Unlicensed and Unshackled: A Joint OSP-OET White Paper on Unlicensed Devices and Their Regulatory Issues, (FCC, Office of Strategic Planning & Policy Analysis, Working Paper No. 39, 2003), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-234741A1.pdf.
3. Ikeda, Nobuo, The Spectrum as Commons, RIETI Discussion Paper Series 02-E-002, (November, 2002), available at SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=309980.
News & Others:
1. Angus, Ian, The Myth of the Tragedy of the Commons, MRZINE (August 25, 2008), http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2008/angus250808.html.
2. A Brief History of Wi-Fi, THE ECONOMIST (June 10, 2004), available at http://www.economist.com/node/2724397.
3. BOINGO, http://www.boingo.com/ (last visited June 1, 2013).
4. CREATIVE COMMONS, http://creativecommons.org/about (last visited July 5, 2013).
5. Chen, Brian X., How Spectrum Sharing Would Work, N.Y. TIMES (May 29, 2012), available at http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/29/how-spectrum-sharing-would-work/.
6. Farivar, Cyrus, FCC Proposes Spectrum Sharing, as Mobile Carriers Give Wary Eye, ARSTECHNICA (Decenber 13, 2012, 10:20 AM), http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2012/12/fcc-proposes-spectrum-sharing-as-mobile-carriers-give-wary-eye/.
7. FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski Announces Major Effort to Increase Wi-Fi Speeds and Alleviate Wi-Fi Congestion at Airports, Convention Centers, and in Homes with Multiple Devices and Users, FCC NEWS, (January 9, 2013), available at http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2013/db0109/DOC-318326A1.pdf.
8. FCC Adopts Spectrum Leasing Rules and Streamlined Processing for License Transfer and Assignment Applications, and Proposes Further Steps to Increase Access to Spectrum Through Secondary Markets, FCC NEWS, (May 15, 2003), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-234562A1.pdf.
9. India’s Telecom companies face “Winner’s Curse” in savage 3G Spectrum Bidding, GREEN WORLD INVESTOR (May 11, 2011), http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2010/05/11/indias-telecom-companies-face-winners-curse-in-savage-3g-spectrum-bidding/.
10. Legal Theory Lexicon 029: Public and Private Goods, http://lsolum.typepad.com/legal_theory_lexicon/2004/03/legal_theory_le.html (last visited June 1, 2013).
11. Levy, Steven, How Google Will Use High-Flying Balloons to Deliver Internet to the Hinterlands, WIRED (June 14, 2013, 11:08 PM), http://www.wired.com/business/2013/06/google_internet_balloons/.
12. Lazarus, David, Taxpayers failing to get their fair share of wireless gold rush, L.A. TIMES (Apirl 16, 2013) , available at http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-lazarus-20130416,0,2146389.column
13. Lasar, Mattehw, Finally: Google, Nine Others to Run “White Space” Databases, ARSTECHNICA (Jan 28, 2011, 1:18 AM), http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2011/01/google-nine-others-will-run-white-space-databases/.
14. Murph, Darren, Researchers Achieve World Record in Wireless Data Transmission, Seek to Provide Rural Broadband, ENGADGET (May 22, 2013, 2:28 AM), http://www.engadget.com/2013/05/22/world-record-wireless-data-transmission/?utm_medium=feed&utm_source=Feed_Classic&utm_campaign=Engadget.
15. Markoff, John, Presidential Panel Urges More Flexible Use of Spectrum, N.Y. TIMES (May 25, 2012), available at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/26/technology/presidential-panel-urges-better-use-of-spectrum.html?pagewanted=all.
16. Mcadam, Lowell C., Running out of Bandwidth, N.Y. TIMES (October 21, 2011), available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/22/opinion/wireless-spectrum-should-be-reallocated.html?_r=1.
17. Ofcom, Ofcom Progresses With New Technology, September 1, 2011, available at http://media.ofcom.org.uk/2011/09/01/ofcom-progresses-with-new-wireless-technology/.
18. PROJECT LOON, http://www.google.com/loon/ (last visited July 5, 2013).
19. Taylor, Paul, Intense scramble for US mobile telecoms spectrum, FINANCIAL TIMES (January 3, 2012), available at http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/fe51f2d0-2da4-11e1-b985-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1ieDFZJFh.
20. WIKI, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_layer (last visited June 1, 2013).
21. What is Software Defined Radio?, WIRELESS INNOVATION FORUM, http://www.wirelessinnovation.org/Introduction_to_SDR (last visited June 1, 2013).
22. Whitt, Richard, The promise of open platforms in upcoming auctions, (July 10, 2007 9:01 AM), http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.tw/2007/07/promise-of-open-platforms-in-upcoming.html.
指導教授 王明禮(Ming-li Wang) 審核日期 2013-7-30
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